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MBA论文代写-resist change



Why do people resist change at work and how can this resistance be overcome from an HR perspective?

1. Introduction

Change is a common feature of the workplace. This paper examines why people resist change at work. It then explores how this resistance can be surmounted from an HR viewpoint.

2. Resistance to change at work

From research into individual and organisational behaviour, it is well established that people at work can sometimes resist change (Robbins, 1992). The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) define resistance to change at work as “an individual or group engaging in acts to block or disrupt an attempt to introduce change” (CIPD, 2014, p.2) and argue that, in general, resistance to change in the workplace occurs in two ways: “resistance to the content of change” and “resistance to the process of change” (CIPD, 2014, p.2).

The reasons for resistance to change at work are numerous. Resisting change enables stability and for the status quo at work to be maintained (Robbins, 1992). Change jeopardises the comfort zones and security of employees who are risk averse and who like familiarity (Holbeche, 2001). The fear of the unknown may result in resistance to change (Robbins, 1992). There may be resistance when change appears to threaten someone’s income (Robbins, 1992). Change can appear threatening to the individual worker when it is foisted on them top down without their input as they do not feel in control (Holbeche 2001).

Gifford et al (2012), in their review of change programmes in NHS South of England, found that “many people do embrace change, but it is easy to feel undermined or threatened by it, even if one accepts at a broad level that change is needed. As well as the challenge of embracing new ways of working, it can be hard to let go of the old ways. Not only do people have ingrained habits and ways of thinking; they also become skilled in familiar work and may feel that their credibility is based upon it. For example, if someone spends years honing skills in a specific procedure and is then told they should be using a completely different technique, this may cut at their sense of self worth” (Gifford et al, 2012, p. 15).

Thus, there may be resistance if a person’s perception of how the world of work should be is threatened. Robbins (1992) explains that “individuals shape their world through their perceptions. Once they have created this world, it resists change. So individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact” (Robbins, 1992, p.281).

Psychologists have studied resistance to change and it has been recognised that change may involve a significant shift for the individual, like a bereavement, where what was once certain is no longer so and they have to relinquish the familiar in order to be able to embed change (Holbeche, 2001).

The psychological contract is an important consideration when looking at resistance to change at work. Guest and Conway (2002) defined the psychological contract as “the perceptions of both parties to the employment relationship, organisation and individual, of the reciprocal promises and obligations implied in that relationship” (Guest and Conway, 2002, p.22). The CIPD (2005) argue that the psychological contract is “now best seen as a tool that can help employers negotiate the inevitable process of change so as to achieve their business objective without sacrificing the support and co-operation of employees along the way” (CIPD, 2005, p.4).

CIPD (2005) commented that people expected commitments made to them by management to be honoured and that management should make the effort to do so. Where management is not able to honour a commitment, attempts should be made, however difficult, to explain why and its impact on the employee. A breach of the psychological contract is likely to result in employees having a negative attitude to their employer which would include resistance to change. A case study at a Scottish manufacturing plant, where employees believed that the psychological contract had been breached by the employer, noted that the regular imposition of change programmes had resulted in a high level of cynicism amongst supervisors and shop floor staff (Pate, Martins and Staines 2000).

If there is a lot of organisational change in a workplace, it is likely to be negatively received by its staff (CIPD, 2005;Guest and Conway 2001). Furthermore, where there is frequent change, it is likely to result in staff believing that management do not know what they are doing and their trust in them declines (CIPD 2005) (Guest and Conway 2001).

In spite of all the above, research into change management reveals that there are things that can be done to alleviate resistance to change.

3. Overcoming resistance to change: the HR viewpoint

3.1 Adopt a positive approach to resistance at work

Resistance to change can be a cue for stakeholders in an organisation to have a meaningful debate about the merits of the proposed change. This may lead to amendments and improvements to the change (Robbins 1992).

3.2 The need to understand why change is happening

Research has shown that it is important for staff to understand why change is happening in terms how it will benefit the business and ideally how will it benefit them.

In the Gifford et al (2012) review of change programmes across the NHS South of England, it concluded that “leaders need to sell the benefits of the change. To do this they need to express their vision in a way that makes it easy for stakeholders to relate it to the purpose and values of the NHS and to their own principles and motivations” (Gifford et al., 2012, p.5). Gifford et al (2012) added that “purpose and vision [of the change programme] are crucial factors” (Gifford et al., 2012, p. 51) that should be communicated in many ways to make sure the message connects with the stakeholders.

In redundancy situations, Holbeche (2001) discovered that there was a “link between the perceived reason for the delayering and the effect on employees. If people thought that the reason for the delayering was simply cost cutting, their morale and motivation tended to be more adversely affected than where there appeared to be a more ‘strategic’ reason for the change” (Holbeche, 2001, 367).

3.3 Communication

Communication plays a critical part in helping staff understand why change is happening and in feeling engaged in the change process. Internal communication mechanisms which enable staff to feel empowered and involved are key to minimising resistance. Two way communication mechanisms like attitude surveys can be effective, but only if visible changes arise as a result (Holbeche, 2001). Other forms of communication that can help are senior management presentations (where questions can be asked and answered), road shows, team briefings and management cascades, question and answer mechanisms (for example by email) and internal newsletters (Holbeche, 2001).

Communication should ideally involve an element of being two way and should include all stakeholders. The CIPD (2005) found that top down communiques by senior managers were perhaps the most ineffectual way of delivering important messages to staff. Mission statements were slightly more effectual, but the most successful way of reaching staff with messages that they are likely to believe is through line managers (CIPD, 2005).

In recent times, storytelling, narratives and theatre have been used in change situations as innovative ways of communicating with staff in order to get them engaged and involved. These methods allow for a move away from top down senior management communication (Daley and Browning, 2014, Dennis, 2010, Thomas and Northcote, 2012).

Formal communication, in times of change, should:

  • Inform – about the organizational/ personal implications
  • Clarify – the reason for the change, the strategy and benefits
  • Provide direction – about the emerging vision, values and desired behaviours
  • Focus – on immediate work priorities and actions, together with medium term goals
  • Reassure – that the organisation will treat them [staff] with respect and dignity” (Holbeche, 2001, p.368).

3.4 Staff engagement

Those affected by the change need to feel engaged so that they believe that they are invested in the change. This can be time consuming and difficult for those leading the change (CIPD 2005, Gifford et al. 2012). Engagement can mean getting staff to buy into change that has already been devised or it can mean getting staff involved in actually designing the change (Gifford et al., 2012). Leaders need to be clear about what level of engagement is being offered as unfulfilled expectations risk demotivating staff and weakening good will. (Gifford et al, 2012).

Bearing in mind the psychological contract, the CIPD (2005) argue that managing change well involves getting employees’ buy-in and making sure that they are not caught unawares. Employees want fair treatment and it is important that they believe that they can trust management. As stated earlier, if employees’ expectations are not to be met, the reason why should be explained by management (CIPD, 2005).

3.5 Leadership

Those in leadership positions in the organisation have to act as role models for change to be successful. If the behaviour of the leaders in an organisation is at odds with their verbal utterances in a change situation, it can result in cynicism in staff and thus resistance to change.

Holbeche (2001) reports of a case study where company directors were charged with leading an organisational change involving paying particular attention to the customer. The directors talked to staff about the importance of the organisation’s values, especially teamwork. However, staff knew that the senior leadership team did not work well as a team and thus, the change message was being met with cynicism. When the Chief Executive took drastic action and threatened to punish the directors financially, that was when the directors became serious about role modelling good team work and effective leadership. As a result, the change message became believable to staff.

3.6 Apply learning from neuroscience

Dowling (2014) explored the connection between neuroscience and change management. He found that neuroplasticity, the concept of the adult brain being able to change through specific activity and experiences, was applicable in change situations, if it was self-directed by the individual employee. He advised that employers should give their employees the latitude to have their own insights into the proposed change and that this would allow new neural pathways to be formed in the employees’ brain, making sustainable change possible.

Downing (2014) also explored the impact of threat and reward on employees’ behaviour. He argued that when a person is faced with a perceived threat, the brain has an inbuilt defence mechanism which is activated. This provides some explanation as to why there is resistance at work when an employee feels threatened. This argument reinforces the need for those leading the change to emphasize the benefits of the proposed change so that the employee’s brain reward response is activated as opposed to their threat response.

Downing (2014) additionally looked at habit and how the prefrontal cortex of the human brain (the advanced cognition brain area) operates primarily on the basis of habit, otherwise it would be using a huge amount of energy which would not be sustainable. During periods of change, when individuals are being required to adopt new habits, a heavy burden is potentially being placed on the prefrontal cortex. When designing change programmes, there needs to be an awareness of the brain’s limited capacity for change (Downing, 2014, Scarlett, 2013).

3.7 HR

HR has a pivotal role to play in staff communication and engagement as well as in planning change effectively, including taking into account the learnings from neuroscience. There has to be a real partnership between the business and HR for change to be effective. HR plays a role in assisting, developing and supporting those in leadership positions to be effective in their roles so as not to undermine the success of the change programme and engender resistance to change (Holbeche, 2001, CIPD, 2005, Gifford et al., 2012).

4. Conclusion

Although resistance to change is something that occurs in the workplace for many understandable reasons, it can be minimised by good communication and staff engagement, explaining the need for change in terms of its benefits to the business and to the individual member of staff, learning from research, effective leadership as well as HR working well with the business and being an integral part of the change. Overcoming resistance at work matters, as while resistance is occurring, it may result in negative consequences such as having a negative impact on performance and productivity, creating an environment for turf wars at work as well as demoralising and demotivating staff (Holbeche, 2001,Robbins 1992, Cannon and McGee 2008, Hughes, 2010).

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Boeing 747 Jumbo Jet: The aircraft that changed the world


In the early days of commercial airline transport, air travel saw a large increase in travellers and airport congestion rising in the 1960s. This era of commercial airline travel was led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and the Douglas DC-8, both of which had revolutionized the standard for long-distance travel. With the increase of commercial airline passengers and the relatively small aircrafts available at the time, airport congestion was becoming a major problem in the industry. Juan Trippe, of Pan Am (Pan American World Airways), one of the Boeing’s most important airline customers thought this problem could be addressed by a newer and larger aircraft.

在商业航空运输的早期阶段,因航空旅行导致的拥堵情况,在20世纪60年代大幅增加。这个商业航空旅行的时代是由波音707和道格拉斯DC-8的巨大普及引领的,这两者都彻底改变了长途旅行的标准。随着商用航空公司乘客和当时可用的相对较小的飞机的增加,机场拥堵成为该行业的主要问题。来自Pan Am(泛美航空公司)的Juan Trippe是波音最重要的航空公司客户之一,他们认为这个问题可以通过制造更新更大的飞机解决。

During the summer of 1965 on a quiet fishing trip in Alaska, Bill Allen of Boeing and Juan Trippe of Pan Am, the two biggest names in the aviation industry at the time, Trippe told Allen of his vision for a super plane. Trippe wanted an aircraft that was two and a half times larger than any other passenger aircraft that had ever existed before. Both Trippe and Allen were reaching retirement, and both wanted to leave their mark in the aviation industry. It was at this point when the birth story of the Boeing 747 began and would change the aviation industry forever.

1965年夏天,在阿拉斯加安静的钓鱼之旅中,波音公司的 Bill Allen 和泛美航空公司的 Juan Trippe(当时是航空业的两大知名人士), Trippe 告诉 Allen他对超级飞机的看法。 Trippe 想要的飞机,比以前所有的客机大两倍半。当时,Trippe和Allen都退休了,他们都想在航空业留下自己的印记。正是在这一时刻,波音747的诞生故事才开始,并将永远改变航空业。


In April 1966, Trippe had signed for an order for 25 of the newly proposed super jets and for them to be called the 747. This was one the largest aircraft orders ever to be made in history. This costs for this order at the time came to a total of approximately US$525 million dollars which translates to a value of a staggering US$4.2 billion dollars today. Allen had also agreed that Trippe could have his order in just a mere 28 months. This had set an almost impossible challenge for Boeing’s engineers to complete.

1966年4月,Trippe 签署了25架新提出的超级喷气式飞机的订单,并将其命名为747.这是有史以来规模最大的飞机订单之一。这笔订单当时的成本总计约为5.25亿美元,相当于今天价值惊人的42亿美元。Allen也认为可以在短短28个月内完成订单。这为波音公司的工程师们,制定了几乎不可能的挑战。

Joe Sutter, a young aeronautical engineer whom graduated from the University of Washington in 1943 was transferred from Boeing’s 737 development team to lead and manage the team for the development and design of the new 747 as the Chief Engineer. This was Sutter’s first big break as an engineer. With a small team of only 20 members, Sutter and his team were required to go through preliminary studies for this aircraft which provided them with their first challenge for the development of the 747 as at the time all they knew was that the aircraft had to be bigger, have good range and go as fast as possible. Back then, Sutter was only a junior engineer in the company and often faced a hostile reception from the more senior engineers of the company. Despite the size of the project Sutter and his team were facing and how they were working around the clock, they were still not Boeing’s number one priority. At the time, the development of the 747 was overshadowed by the development of a supersonic transport aircraft in which Boeing believed would be the future of the aviation industry. This meant that Boeing’s best talent and resources was directed into the development of this aircraft.

Joe Sutter是一位年轻的航空工程师,1943年毕业于华盛顿大学,他被从波音737开发团队调来,负责领导和管理团队,负责开发和设计新747作为总工程师。这是Sutter作为工程师的第一次重大突破。由于只有20名成员的小团队,Sutter和他的团队对这架飞机进行了初步研究,这是747制造的第一个挑战,因为他们只知道飞机必须更大更快。那时候,Sutter只是该公司的一名初级工程师,经常面临高级工程师的敌意。当时,747的发展被超音速运输机的发展所掩盖,波音认为这将成为航空工业的未来。这意味着波音公司最好的人才和资源被用于开发这架飞机。

A supersonic transport aircraft that was designed to travel at three times the speed of sound and to compete with its European supersonic rival, Concorde, which was also in its development stage. When the supersonic transport aircraft was to be completed and come into service, Boeing’s 747 would then be relegated to shipping freight. This influenced the design of the 747 so that it be adapted easily to carry freight and heavy cargo and to remain in production even if the sales of the passenger version were to decline. Because of this, the 747 was almost expected to be an afterthought and Boeing didn’t expect for more than 50 of the 747s to be made and until the supersonic aircraft was completed, the 747 was playing second fiddle the whole time. This lead to Sutter and his team being shoved into old premises and starved of resources making their challenge even more difficult than before.


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计算机论文代写范文- GSM Communication

gsm communication


GSM is a connection between two people − a caller and the called person – is the basic service of all telephone networks. To apply this service, the network must has ability to set up and maintain a call, which includes some tasks: identifying the called person, determining the location, routing the call, and ensuring that the connection is continued until conversation lasts. After the transaction, the connection is terminated.


In a fixed telephone network, providing and managing connections is an easy process, because telephones are connected by wires to the network and their location is permanent from the networks’ point of view. Whereas, in a mobile network, the establishment of a call is more complex task, because it doesn’t have wire and permanent location. It enables the users to move by wireless (radio) connection.


What is GSM?

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communication and is an open, digital cellular technology transmits mobile voice and data services. It is a digital mobile telephony system that is widely used technology in the world. The GSM market has more than 70 percent of the world’s digital cellular subscribers. The GSM makes use of narrowband Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technique for transmitting signals. The GSM was developed by using digital technology. It has an ability to carry 64 kbps to 120 Mbps of data rates.

GSM代表全球移动通信系统,是一种开放的数字蜂窝技术,可传输移动语音和数据服务。它是一种数字移动电话系统,是世界上广泛使用的技术。GSM市场拥有全球70%以上的数字蜂窝用户。GSM利用窄带时分多址(TDMA)技术发送信号。GSM是使用数字技术开发的。它能够承载64 kbps至120 Mbps的数据速率。

GSM operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band. In Europe, operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands and in US, operates 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands. The GSM is a circuit-switched system that divides each 200 kHz channel into eight 25 kHz time-slots.

GSM工作在900  MHz  或1800 MHz频段。在欧洲,运行在900MHz和1.8GHz频段,在美国,运行1.9GHz和850MHz频段。GSM是一个电路交换系统,它将每个200 kHz信道分成8个25 kHz时隙。

Cell phones use GSM network by searching for cell phone towers in the nearby area. GSM carriers have roaming contacts with other GSM carriers and typically cover rural areas more completely. GSM also has the advantage of using SIM (subscriber identity module) cards. The SIM card, which acts as your digital identity, is tied to your cell phone service carrier’s network rather than to the handset itself. This allows for easy exchange from one phone to another without new cell phone service activation.


Today, more than 690 mobile networks provide GSM services across 213 countries and GSM represents 82.4% of all global mobile connections. According to GSM World, there are now more than 2 billion GSM mobile phone users worldwide. GSM World references China as “the largest single GSM market, with more than 370 million users, followed by Russia with 145 million, India with 83 million and the USA with 78 million users.”

如今,超过690个移动网络在213个国家提供GSM服务,GSM占全球移动连接的82.4%。据GSM World称,目前全球有超过20亿的GSM手机用户。GSM World将中国称为“最大的单一GSM市场,拥有超过3.7亿用户,其次是俄罗斯,有1.45亿,印度有8300万,美国有7800万用户。”

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人力资源论文代写范文- 华为文化冲突


The Human Resources Challenge of Huawei —- Cultural clash


Background of Huawei

In 1987, Ren Zhengfei, then 44 years old, founded a telecom equipment-trading firm in Shenzhen, China, with startup capital of CNY 21,000. By the end of 2014, Huawei had 170,000 employees in more than 170 countries and regions, serving more than one-third of the world’s population, and leading the world in international patent applications. Over 30 years, it has grown to become the largest telecom company in the world. As well as that, it has operations and representative offices in more than 100 countries and serves over 1 billion users worldwide. Huawei’s success boils down to two fundamental elements: the changing technology environment and the creativity of its people, so we can realize that employees play a very important role in Huawei and the human resources management is very crucial to Huawei.

1987年,44岁的任正非在中国深圳成立了一家电信设备贸易公司,启动资金为21,000元人民币。截至2014年底,华为在170多个国家和地区拥有17万名员工,服务于全球三分之一以上的人口,在国际专利申请方面处于世界领先地位。30多年来,它已发展成为世界上最大的电信公司。除此之外,它还在100多个国家设有运营和代表处,为全球10亿用户提供服务。华为的成功归结为两个基本要素:不断变化的技术环境和人员的创造力, 对华为来说至关重要的是,让员工认识到员工在华为和人力资源管理中扮演着非常重要的角色。

Human resources challenges of Huawei

According to Fang Lee Cooke (The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2012, p.1845), there are several challenge to HRM in host countries and management responses of Huawei. First, because salaries are based on performance levels, inexperienced local new hires may have lower wages. Second, unlike local employment laws, as foreign companies, they need to comply more strictly with these laws than China. Third, how to strike a balance between employee development and cost-effective employee disbursement is sometimes a dilemma because HCN employees need training and development opportunities and then leave more famous Western multinationals. Fourth, multiculturalism and diversity management is another issue. Huawei may be one of the few Chinese companies that actively adopt the concept of multiculturalism and diversity management. Fifth, the lack of approval from local employees and their employers and the lack of acceptance of the corporate culture of Chinese enterprises are a double challenge to the issue of retention.

Fang Lee Cooke(国际人力资源管理杂志,2012年,p.1845)指出,人力资源管理面临着一些挑战,华为的管理层也作出了回应。首先,由于工资是基于绩效水平的,缺乏经验的本地新员工的工资可能更低。其次,与当地的就业法不同,作为外国公司,他们需要比中国更严格地遵守这些法律。第三,如何在员工发展和成本效益的员工支付之间取得平衡,有时是一个两难的选择,因为HCN员工需要培训和发展机会,然后离开更著名的西方跨国公司。第四,多元文化和多样性管理是另一个问题。华为可能是少数几个积极采用多元文化和多元化管理理念的中国公司之一。第五,缺乏当地员工及其雇主的认可,对中国企业的企业文化缺乏接受,是对留用问题的双重挑战。

The key challenge

Cultural clash is one of the key human resources aspects that affected Huawei. Huawei as a multinational company, the objective existence of the company’s internal cultural differences, is bound to cause cultural conflicts in the enterprise. As the process of global integration accelerates and the flow of human resources in multinational enterprises like Huawei continues to accelerate, this cultural friction will increase day by day and gradually begin to manifest itself in the internal management and external operation of transnational corporations, resulting in the loss of market opportunities for transnational corporations and the inefficiency of the organizational structure and make the implementation of the global strategy in trouble. Therefore, this essay will attempt to demonstrate how the Huawei can solve this problem and develop better for its brighter future using human resources management practices.


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M&S Marketing essay

Select a retail sector with which you are familiar. What is the likely impact on the sector of a downturn in the growth of consumer spending- What strategies should a (named) retailer in the sector adopt to minimise the threat?

消费者支出增长对经济衰退可能有什么影响? 选择您熟悉的零售行业。该行业的(指定)零售商采取什么策略来减少威胁?

Following the financial and economic crisis in 2007, the reduction in consumer spending had a significant impact upon major high street fashion brands including Marks and Spencer, which saw sales and profitability fall significantly. In response to this, M&S adopted a strategy of contraction, which entailed the closure of a number of stores, particularly in the Simply Foods outlet sector. However, despite the fact that this ostensibly led to a reduction of costs, it can be argued that this approach also had an adverse effect upon the marketing mix and competitive advantage of the business. This was proven by the fact that M&S lost market share as a result of this strategy while other fashion stores, such as Primark and Zara maintained their growth pattern through this period.

在2007年的金融和经济危机之后,消费者支出的减少,对包括Marks and Spencer在内的主要高街时尚品牌产生了重大影响,其销售和盈利能力大幅下降。为此,玛莎百货( M&S )采取了收缩策略,包括关闭一些商店,特别是在Simply Foods的直销店。然而,尽管这显然降低了成本,但这种方法也对营销组合和企业的竞争优势产生了不利影响。事实证明,由于这一战略,M&S失去了市场份额,而Primark和Zara等其他时装店在此期间保持了增长模式。

It is considered that the strategy M&S should have adopted should have been based upon a more proactive approach. In this respect, there are two elements that the corporation needed to address. The first of these is to ensure that a policy of value chain management is re-enforced, which would reduce costs and therefore prices, while at the same time allowing the business to maintain its profitability levels. For example, had the marketing message for M&S been more focused upon delivering consumer savings rather than news of store closures, which forces additional cost on the consumer in terms of travelling to the store, it is likely that consumer loyalty would have been maintained at a higher level. Secondly, there was a need to ensure, through appropriate marketing research, that the products being offered met with the changing demands and needs of the consumer during this period. Similarly, it is likely that had the marketing focus for the business during this period been more directed towards lower cost elements and savings available to the consumer that this would have also contributed in maintaining its market share within the fashion sector. In other words, the corporation needed to adopt a proactive rather than reactive approach to marketing during the economic downturn.


There is strong movement amongst supermarkets to buy in consumer products which are not traditional supermarket lines (e.g., TV sets). The supermarkets do not carry a full range of these items and are not committed to carrying them all the time. What are the strategic reasons for this kind of activity? What are the risks?


Over recent decades, Supermarkets in the UK have continued to diversify the range and scope of the products and services they offer to their customers. This has included an expansion into non-food products, such as technology and entertainment goods, home furnishings and even the inclusion of service based products, such as banking and insurance offerings.