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MBA论文代写-resist change

MBA论文代写

为什么人们会抵制工作中的变化?如何从人力资源的角度克服这种阻力?

Why do people resist change at work and how can this resistance be overcome from an HR perspective?

1. Introduction

Change is a common feature of the workplace. This paper examines why people resist change at work. It then explores how this resistance can be surmounted from an HR viewpoint.

2. Resistance to change at work

From research into individual and organisational behaviour, it is well established that people at work can sometimes resist change (Robbins, 1992). The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) define resistance to change at work as “an individual or group engaging in acts to block or disrupt an attempt to introduce change” (CIPD, 2014, p.2) and argue that, in general, resistance to change in the workplace occurs in two ways: “resistance to the content of change” and “resistance to the process of change” (CIPD, 2014, p.2).

The reasons for resistance to change at work are numerous. Resisting change enables stability and for the status quo at work to be maintained (Robbins, 1992). Change jeopardises the comfort zones and security of employees who are risk averse and who like familiarity (Holbeche, 2001). The fear of the unknown may result in resistance to change (Robbins, 1992). There may be resistance when change appears to threaten someone’s income (Robbins, 1992). Change can appear threatening to the individual worker when it is foisted on them top down without their input as they do not feel in control (Holbeche 2001).

Gifford et al (2012), in their review of change programmes in NHS South of England, found that “many people do embrace change, but it is easy to feel undermined or threatened by it, even if one accepts at a broad level that change is needed. As well as the challenge of embracing new ways of working, it can be hard to let go of the old ways. Not only do people have ingrained habits and ways of thinking; they also become skilled in familiar work and may feel that their credibility is based upon it. For example, if someone spends years honing skills in a specific procedure and is then told they should be using a completely different technique, this may cut at their sense of self worth” (Gifford et al, 2012, p. 15).

Thus, there may be resistance if a person’s perception of how the world of work should be is threatened. Robbins (1992) explains that “individuals shape their world through their perceptions. Once they have created this world, it resists change. So individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact” (Robbins, 1992, p.281).

Psychologists have studied resistance to change and it has been recognised that change may involve a significant shift for the individual, like a bereavement, where what was once certain is no longer so and they have to relinquish the familiar in order to be able to embed change (Holbeche, 2001).

The psychological contract is an important consideration when looking at resistance to change at work. Guest and Conway (2002) defined the psychological contract as “the perceptions of both parties to the employment relationship, organisation and individual, of the reciprocal promises and obligations implied in that relationship” (Guest and Conway, 2002, p.22). The CIPD (2005) argue that the psychological contract is “now best seen as a tool that can help employers negotiate the inevitable process of change so as to achieve their business objective without sacrificing the support and co-operation of employees along the way” (CIPD, 2005, p.4).

CIPD (2005) commented that people expected commitments made to them by management to be honoured and that management should make the effort to do so. Where management is not able to honour a commitment, attempts should be made, however difficult, to explain why and its impact on the employee. A breach of the psychological contract is likely to result in employees having a negative attitude to their employer which would include resistance to change. A case study at a Scottish manufacturing plant, where employees believed that the psychological contract had been breached by the employer, noted that the regular imposition of change programmes had resulted in a high level of cynicism amongst supervisors and shop floor staff (Pate, Martins and Staines 2000).

If there is a lot of organisational change in a workplace, it is likely to be negatively received by its staff (CIPD, 2005;Guest and Conway 2001). Furthermore, where there is frequent change, it is likely to result in staff believing that management do not know what they are doing and their trust in them declines (CIPD 2005) (Guest and Conway 2001).

In spite of all the above, research into change management reveals that there are things that can be done to alleviate resistance to change.

3. Overcoming resistance to change: the HR viewpoint

3.1 Adopt a positive approach to resistance at work

Resistance to change can be a cue for stakeholders in an organisation to have a meaningful debate about the merits of the proposed change. This may lead to amendments and improvements to the change (Robbins 1992).

3.2 The need to understand why change is happening

Research has shown that it is important for staff to understand why change is happening in terms how it will benefit the business and ideally how will it benefit them.

In the Gifford et al (2012) review of change programmes across the NHS South of England, it concluded that “leaders need to sell the benefits of the change. To do this they need to express their vision in a way that makes it easy for stakeholders to relate it to the purpose and values of the NHS and to their own principles and motivations” (Gifford et al., 2012, p.5). Gifford et al (2012) added that “purpose and vision [of the change programme] are crucial factors” (Gifford et al., 2012, p. 51) that should be communicated in many ways to make sure the message connects with the stakeholders.

In redundancy situations, Holbeche (2001) discovered that there was a “link between the perceived reason for the delayering and the effect on employees. If people thought that the reason for the delayering was simply cost cutting, their morale and motivation tended to be more adversely affected than where there appeared to be a more ‘strategic’ reason for the change” (Holbeche, 2001, 367).

3.3 Communication

Communication plays a critical part in helping staff understand why change is happening and in feeling engaged in the change process. Internal communication mechanisms which enable staff to feel empowered and involved are key to minimising resistance. Two way communication mechanisms like attitude surveys can be effective, but only if visible changes arise as a result (Holbeche, 2001). Other forms of communication that can help are senior management presentations (where questions can be asked and answered), road shows, team briefings and management cascades, question and answer mechanisms (for example by email) and internal newsletters (Holbeche, 2001).

Communication should ideally involve an element of being two way and should include all stakeholders. The CIPD (2005) found that top down communiques by senior managers were perhaps the most ineffectual way of delivering important messages to staff. Mission statements were slightly more effectual, but the most successful way of reaching staff with messages that they are likely to believe is through line managers (CIPD, 2005).

In recent times, storytelling, narratives and theatre have been used in change situations as innovative ways of communicating with staff in order to get them engaged and involved. These methods allow for a move away from top down senior management communication (Daley and Browning, 2014, Dennis, 2010, Thomas and Northcote, 2012).

Formal communication, in times of change, should:

  • Inform – about the organizational/ personal implications
  • Clarify – the reason for the change, the strategy and benefits
  • Provide direction – about the emerging vision, values and desired behaviours
  • Focus – on immediate work priorities and actions, together with medium term goals
  • Reassure – that the organisation will treat them [staff] with respect and dignity” (Holbeche, 2001, p.368).

3.4 Staff engagement

Those affected by the change need to feel engaged so that they believe that they are invested in the change. This can be time consuming and difficult for those leading the change (CIPD 2005, Gifford et al. 2012). Engagement can mean getting staff to buy into change that has already been devised or it can mean getting staff involved in actually designing the change (Gifford et al., 2012). Leaders need to be clear about what level of engagement is being offered as unfulfilled expectations risk demotivating staff and weakening good will. (Gifford et al, 2012).

Bearing in mind the psychological contract, the CIPD (2005) argue that managing change well involves getting employees’ buy-in and making sure that they are not caught unawares. Employees want fair treatment and it is important that they believe that they can trust management. As stated earlier, if employees’ expectations are not to be met, the reason why should be explained by management (CIPD, 2005).

3.5 Leadership

Those in leadership positions in the organisation have to act as role models for change to be successful. If the behaviour of the leaders in an organisation is at odds with their verbal utterances in a change situation, it can result in cynicism in staff and thus resistance to change.

Holbeche (2001) reports of a case study where company directors were charged with leading an organisational change involving paying particular attention to the customer. The directors talked to staff about the importance of the organisation’s values, especially teamwork. However, staff knew that the senior leadership team did not work well as a team and thus, the change message was being met with cynicism. When the Chief Executive took drastic action and threatened to punish the directors financially, that was when the directors became serious about role modelling good team work and effective leadership. As a result, the change message became believable to staff.

3.6 Apply learning from neuroscience

Dowling (2014) explored the connection between neuroscience and change management. He found that neuroplasticity, the concept of the adult brain being able to change through specific activity and experiences, was applicable in change situations, if it was self-directed by the individual employee. He advised that employers should give their employees the latitude to have their own insights into the proposed change and that this would allow new neural pathways to be formed in the employees’ brain, making sustainable change possible.

Downing (2014) also explored the impact of threat and reward on employees’ behaviour. He argued that when a person is faced with a perceived threat, the brain has an inbuilt defence mechanism which is activated. This provides some explanation as to why there is resistance at work when an employee feels threatened. This argument reinforces the need for those leading the change to emphasize the benefits of the proposed change so that the employee’s brain reward response is activated as opposed to their threat response.

Downing (2014) additionally looked at habit and how the prefrontal cortex of the human brain (the advanced cognition brain area) operates primarily on the basis of habit, otherwise it would be using a huge amount of energy which would not be sustainable. During periods of change, when individuals are being required to adopt new habits, a heavy burden is potentially being placed on the prefrontal cortex. When designing change programmes, there needs to be an awareness of the brain’s limited capacity for change (Downing, 2014, Scarlett, 2013).

3.7 HR

HR has a pivotal role to play in staff communication and engagement as well as in planning change effectively, including taking into account the learnings from neuroscience. There has to be a real partnership between the business and HR for change to be effective. HR plays a role in assisting, developing and supporting those in leadership positions to be effective in their roles so as not to undermine the success of the change programme and engender resistance to change (Holbeche, 2001, CIPD, 2005, Gifford et al., 2012).

4. Conclusion

Although resistance to change is something that occurs in the workplace for many understandable reasons, it can be minimised by good communication and staff engagement, explaining the need for change in terms of its benefits to the business and to the individual member of staff, learning from research, effective leadership as well as HR working well with the business and being an integral part of the change. Overcoming resistance at work matters, as while resistance is occurring, it may result in negative consequences such as having a negative impact on performance and productivity, creating an environment for turf wars at work as well as demoralising and demotivating staff (Holbeche, 2001,Robbins 1992, Cannon and McGee 2008, Hughes, 2010).

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工程论文代写-改变世界的波音747

工程论文代写

Boeing 747 Jumbo Jet: The aircraft that changed the world

Introduction

In the early days of commercial airline transport, air travel saw a large increase in travellers and airport congestion rising in the 1960s. This era of commercial airline travel was led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and the Douglas DC-8, both of which had revolutionized the standard for long-distance travel. With the increase of commercial airline passengers and the relatively small aircrafts available at the time, airport congestion was becoming a major problem in the industry. Juan Trippe, of Pan Am (Pan American World Airways), one of the Boeing’s most important airline customers thought this problem could be addressed by a newer and larger aircraft.

在商业航空运输的早期阶段,因航空旅行导致的拥堵情况,在20世纪60年代大幅增加。这个商业航空旅行的时代是由波音707和道格拉斯DC-8的巨大普及引领的,这两者都彻底改变了长途旅行的标准。随着商用航空公司乘客和当时可用的相对较小的飞机的增加,机场拥堵成为该行业的主要问题。来自Pan Am(泛美航空公司)的Juan Trippe是波音最重要的航空公司客户之一,他们认为这个问题可以通过制造更新更大的飞机解决。

During the summer of 1965 on a quiet fishing trip in Alaska, Bill Allen of Boeing and Juan Trippe of Pan Am, the two biggest names in the aviation industry at the time, Trippe told Allen of his vision for a super plane. Trippe wanted an aircraft that was two and a half times larger than any other passenger aircraft that had ever existed before. Both Trippe and Allen were reaching retirement, and both wanted to leave their mark in the aviation industry. It was at this point when the birth story of the Boeing 747 began and would change the aviation industry forever.

1965年夏天,在阿拉斯加安静的钓鱼之旅中,波音公司的 Bill Allen 和泛美航空公司的 Juan Trippe(当时是航空业的两大知名人士), Trippe 告诉 Allen他对超级飞机的看法。 Trippe 想要的飞机,比以前所有的客机大两倍半。当时,Trippe和Allen都退休了,他们都想在航空业留下自己的印记。正是在这一时刻,波音747的诞生故事才开始,并将永远改变航空业。

Development

In April 1966, Trippe had signed for an order for 25 of the newly proposed super jets and for them to be called the 747. This was one the largest aircraft orders ever to be made in history. This costs for this order at the time came to a total of approximately US$525 million dollars which translates to a value of a staggering US$4.2 billion dollars today. Allen had also agreed that Trippe could have his order in just a mere 28 months. This had set an almost impossible challenge for Boeing’s engineers to complete.

1966年4月,Trippe 签署了25架新提出的超级喷气式飞机的订单,并将其命名为747.这是有史以来规模最大的飞机订单之一。这笔订单当时的成本总计约为5.25亿美元,相当于今天价值惊人的42亿美元。Allen也认为可以在短短28个月内完成订单。这为波音公司的工程师们,制定了几乎不可能的挑战。

Joe Sutter, a young aeronautical engineer whom graduated from the University of Washington in 1943 was transferred from Boeing’s 737 development team to lead and manage the team for the development and design of the new 747 as the Chief Engineer. This was Sutter’s first big break as an engineer. With a small team of only 20 members, Sutter and his team were required to go through preliminary studies for this aircraft which provided them with their first challenge for the development of the 747 as at the time all they knew was that the aircraft had to be bigger, have good range and go as fast as possible. Back then, Sutter was only a junior engineer in the company and often faced a hostile reception from the more senior engineers of the company. Despite the size of the project Sutter and his team were facing and how they were working around the clock, they were still not Boeing’s number one priority. At the time, the development of the 747 was overshadowed by the development of a supersonic transport aircraft in which Boeing believed would be the future of the aviation industry. This meant that Boeing’s best talent and resources was directed into the development of this aircraft.

Joe Sutter是一位年轻的航空工程师,1943年毕业于华盛顿大学,他被从波音737开发团队调来,负责领导和管理团队,负责开发和设计新747作为总工程师。这是Sutter作为工程师的第一次重大突破。由于只有20名成员的小团队,Sutter和他的团队对这架飞机进行了初步研究,这是747制造的第一个挑战,因为他们只知道飞机必须更大更快。那时候,Sutter只是该公司的一名初级工程师,经常面临高级工程师的敌意。当时,747的发展被超音速运输机的发展所掩盖,波音认为这将成为航空工业的未来。这意味着波音公司最好的人才和资源被用于开发这架飞机。

A supersonic transport aircraft that was designed to travel at three times the speed of sound and to compete with its European supersonic rival, Concorde, which was also in its development stage. When the supersonic transport aircraft was to be completed and come into service, Boeing’s 747 would then be relegated to shipping freight. This influenced the design of the 747 so that it be adapted easily to carry freight and heavy cargo and to remain in production even if the sales of the passenger version were to decline. Because of this, the 747 was almost expected to be an afterthought and Boeing didn’t expect for more than 50 of the 747s to be made and until the supersonic aircraft was completed, the 747 was playing second fiddle the whole time. This lead to Sutter and his team being shoved into old premises and starved of resources making their challenge even more difficult than before.

这是一种超音速运输机,将以三倍音速飞行,并与欧洲超音速对手协和飞机竞争,后者也处于发展阶段。当超音速运输机完成并投入使用后,波音747将被降级为运输机。这影响了747的设计,因此即使乘客版本的销量下降,它也可以轻松适应运输货物和重货,并保持生产。波音公司没有预料到超过50架的747飞机将被制造出来,直到超音速飞机完成。

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战略论文代写-如何正确引用参考文献

论文参考文献

谈到战略类英文论文的写作,我们不得不提一下 reference 参考文献。在国外,合理正确地使用参考文献非常重要。外国对知识产权有严格的保护,不能容忍抄袭。学习成绩差或学术不诚实是学生被开除的主要原因。因此,抄袭不仅会影响自己的表现,还可能被驱逐出境。我相信虽然你不刻意抄袭,当你面对很多论文任务时,很容易忘记引用,或者不知道如何引用。国外大学如何确定抄袭?什么是抄袭?如何避免剽窃?

 在国外,主要用Turnitin系统来检测抄袭,它会将学生上传的作业与后台数据库里的文章作比对,得出一个相似度比例,和标明学生的那句话是来源于哪篇文章。

一般而言,国外大学会允许10%-30%的相似度。另外,有不少中国学生在写论文时,会引用大量中文材料或文献,而Turnitin系统有时检测不出。相对而言,相似度越低越好。

每个学校的study guidance里面,都会解释抄袭的定义,以及告诉你如何避免这个问题。

以University of Oxford为例,Plagiarism的定义是:Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own, with or without their consent, by incorporating it into your work without full acknowledgement. All published and unpublished material, whether in manu, printed or electronic form, is covered under this definition.

怎么样会导致抄袭?举例来说:

如果你使用了他人文章的句子,但没有注明出处以及正确使用引号,可能会导致抄袭;

如果你总结了他人论文的观点,而没有注明出处,也会导致抄袭;

如果你大量使用他人的观点,而没有注明出处,也会导致抄袭;

如果窃取了其他学生的ideas,而没有注明出处或获得他人的同意,也会导致抄袭;

等等…

如何避免抄袭?根据个人的经验,总结四点重要的TIPS:

Making notes

当阅读他人的文献时,学会记笔记,并注明作者和出版年份,以便在写论文的时候快速寻找,也不会忘记要引用。

Wikipedia is not a reliable source

对于严谨的学术文章来说,要慎用维基百科,更别说百度百科等这类网页,引用的来源必须是可靠,专业的学术文献。

Paraphrasing carefully

其实,在写论文的时候并不需要你要写出最新的观点,或是提出别人都没有说过的观点,而是要学会critical thinking,学会转述他人的观点,通过自己的理解和整理,最后用自己的语言和表达方式写出来。

Use of Quotations and Cite all sources used

注意使用引号,正确使用文中引用和文献清单。另外,根据不同的学科,也会有不同的引用格式,例如,社会科学,传媒,法律就会有不同的style,如APA, OSCOLA, Harvard等等。

以Harvard system为例:

使用引号:

Examples (Harvard system)

The author writes “…plants and localities are also often inter-related with non-local actors” (Eriksson 2009, 29).

“Place specific phenomena can always be seen in relation to other places and geographical levels” (Helgesson 2006, 13).

or directly

Helgesson (2006, 13) states : “Place specific phenomena can always be seen in relation to other places and geographical levels.”

文中引用:

Source with one author

The structure of the European Union is often described in the shape of three pillars (Tallberg 2004, 65).

You can also reference directly.

Tallberg (2004, 65) describes the structure of the European Union in the shape of three pillars.

在论文最后的参考文献:

Books with one Author

Include (if available): author’s last name and first name; title; edition (if not 1st); place of publication and publisher, year of publication.

Example

Bryman, Alan. Social research methods.3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford university press, 2008.

Use Wtire-N-Cite or Endnote

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人力资源论文代写-必读书单推荐

论文书单

眼下正值毕业前夕,各位留学小伙伴是不是忙着写各种论文写作呢?尤其是dissertation,对不对!本文中小编就搜罗了一些关于留学期间英文论文写作的原著书籍,包括一些关于论文写作格式的书、写作技巧的书以及一些专业性比较强的书,我们都知道国外教材有多贵,所以建议大家可以去图书馆借阅或者阅读一些电子书籍,那么下面就来看看这分优质书单中都有哪些书吧。

Lester, James D., and James D. Lester, Jr. Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide. New York: Pearson Longman, 2005.

在写作论文的过程中,我们可能会需要某些可以快速地帮助我们处理问题的工具书。一般的研究辅助书籍内容通常都比较长;然而在本书中,作者很亲切地提供了非常详尽且有系统的目录表,供读者很迅速地找到他们所需要的资料。这本书对于一般大学学生的使用,应该是相当的充足与便利。

Becker, Howard S. Tricks of the Trade: How to Think about Your Research While You’re Doing It. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998.

本书的主要目的是帮助学生培养与传统思考不同的论文思考技巧,因此,在这本书中,并没有指导传统APA或MLA的写作格式,而是在研究的过程中培养思考上的策略与技巧。由于作者是属于社会科学范畴的学者,因此建议较适合该范围的学生研读。本书作者以经验指导读者如何将思考范围扩及各个学科范畴。

Mauch, James E., and Jack W. Birch. Guide to the Successful Thesis and Dissertation: Conception to Publication: A Handbook for Students and Faculty. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc, 1983.

本书专为得取硕博士学位的研究生所撰写,作者将带领学生去了解书写论文的每一个程序步骤;包含了从最初的设定工作时间表,了解指导教授和论文委员会的意义,整个研究的准备、撰写跟修订,一直延伸到论文的申辩过程与该论文未来的发展性。本书对于想要全盘了解学术研究程序与细节的读者会是非常有力之工具书。

How to Write a Thesis

这本书的好处在于它在每个步骤指导过程中指出皆提供了为何如此作的理由,而非机械式地按部就班。

Guide to Student Papers

本书从较短地课堂文章讲解起,直到比较大篇幅的研究写作,主要针对课堂中的学生指导练习如何让一篇初具模型的学术写作成形以及展示。

The Research project

此书提供了一些学术写作步骤、要领以及应该避免犯的一些错误,简洁浅显。

Writing the Research and Term Paper

本书视角比较狭窄,焦点集中在如何消化并系统呈现他人的文献,可能比较适合大学部只针对某些课题作初步了解认识时使用。书的最后部分提供一篇小论文范本,对于一些格式或是文章结构的分析应用应该会有帮助。

Berry, Richard. The Research Project: How to Write it. 3rd ed. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.

本书介绍论文写作的几种基础技巧:<论文的选择:使用图书馆>、 <书目的准备>、<作笔记> 、<实际撰写>、<最后定稿>,辅以一位学生的论文作为样 。其后,作者提示了如何将论文转为合宜出版的格式。

Davis and Parker. Writing the Doctoral Dissertation: A Systematic Approach. Woodbury, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, 1979.

论文写作除了需要一定的写作技能之外,如何善用有限的时间和预算,以及选择合宜的指导教授等。本书即强调这些常被遗忘,却又至为重要的外在因素。

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市场营销论文代写-什么是撇脂策略

哈根达斯撇脂策略

一、概念

撇脂定价是指在产品生命周期的早期阶段将价格定得更高,以实现利润最大化,并尽快收回投资。企业之所以采用这种营销策略,是因为一些买家认为这些高价产品往往具有很高的价值。

二、采用撇脂定价背景

1、具有传统的市场影响力。

2、市场上有一批消费者,他们有很强的购买力,对价格不敏感。

三、案例

1. 哈根达斯是一个全球冰淇淋品牌,1921年由鲁姆-马特斯在纽约创立。哈根达斯采用纯天然材料,不含任何色素防腐剂等。纽约杂志曾将哈根达斯誉为“冰淇淋劳斯莱斯”,到目前为止,世界各地的人们都知道,哈根达斯已经成为高端冰淇淋的象征。哈根达斯采用撇脂定价,由于哈根达斯的总运营成本,他不得不不断宣传其原材料来源的全球化,以及他的专卖店的浪漫布局,给人们以爱的感觉,以使消费者表现出对产品的高质量和高追求。此外,哈根达斯没有竞争对手推出相同的产品,企业的产品具有明显的差异化优势。

2、在中国,香奈儿的“分时保养系列”,早安赋活露、晚安修护霜和周末换肤产品的售价分别为800元、800元和1000元。美国网站的价格分别为85美元、85美元和115美元。按照当时的汇率,兑换为人民币,分别为520元、520元和703.87元。也就是说,这个系列产品在中国的价格比美国高百分之四十二。在当地一家化妆品店,一款法国雅漾舒护活泉水的售价不到6欧元,而在中国,这一价格为180元,比法国高出260%以上。根据调查,雅诗兰黛香水的征收税率为10%,增值税为17%,消费税为30%。品牌将关税归咎于消费者在品牌实施过程中的价差,这似乎不可靠。据调查,中国化妆品进口关税在变化和调整过程中普遍呈现下降趋势,而进口化妆品价格却一直在上涨。这些高端化妆品在中国使用撇脂定价,在竞争对手开发类似产品之前,所有这些都试图尽早收回成本。利用不熟悉的市场,通过人为高估价格获得高额利润。

3、在我们熟悉的电子产品的品牌销售中,苹果的产品受到世界各地消费者的喜爱。每一代新推出的产品,价格都会特别高,高达几万,但还是有人一大早去苹果店排队买。通过高价格销售来收回成本,然后降低价格。它不仅为苹果创造了大量的销售利润,而且带来了巨大的销售收入。世界各地消费者的青睐将苹果推向了全球电子行业的最高水平。让其他竞争对手无可企及。苹果最成功的销售是iPod,在美国第一台iPod零售价为399美元,虽然价格很高,但这对大多数中国人来说都不算什么,为了获得更多的销售额,苹果推出了一款更大的iPod,售价499美元,其销量反而只增不减。这一战略的先决条件之一是,市场上有一群消费者,他们有很强的购买力,对价格不太敏感。使用这些营销策略是将自己包装成高端产品,这样一些人愿意以高价销售,但消费者必须为此付出代价。其定价目的之一是压制竞争对手,在最短的市场周期内再次推出新产品,主动降低原有产品的价格,使他们能够获得良好的市场主动权优势;其次,利用消费者的好奇心,高价格往往可以满足公众的好奇心,满足他们对时尚和个性需求的追求,再加上苹果自身的高端氛围,同时也迎合消费者对新的、不同的、寻求品味的心理,在一定程度上激发了消费者的购买欲望,使苹果的销量每年都能达到一个新的高峰。

4、华为、OPPO、VIVO、华硕推出了撇指定价策略,在他们看来,高端手机和电脑进入市场的新产品,从盈利的角度来看,高端商用手机和具有高科技含量的电脑,投入了更多的人力和财力资源,如果定价过低,就会影响成本的回收。从消费者的心理出发,高端手机和电脑的消费者都是高端消费者,他们对价格的敏感性较低,认为高价格可以反映产品的高质量和高功能,如果手机价格稍微低一点,就会在消费者心中大幅下跌。

5、索尼公司最近几年在推出新产品时都步履蹒跚,在苹果的ipod mini热卖潮流中推出了针对此产品的A1000,可是苹果相继推出的是ipod nano并发布ipod mini停产的消息,苹果保持了产品的差别化优势,而索尼却总是在产品上落后一大步。此外,苹果推出产品马上就可以在市场上买到,而索尼还只是预告,新产品上市还需要等两个月,这两者的速度差距远不可比,使得苹果在很长时间内还是能享受到撇指定价的厚利,而索尼的产品虽然定价同样高,但是索尼的销售量实在太小而只能“撇”到非常小的“脂”。所以索尼公司采用的撇指定价并没有获得成功。索尼失败的一个原因就是品牌的品质和上市速度。所以并不是所有的产品都适合这种定价策略的。

近年来,索尼在推出新产品方面步履蹒跚,在苹果ipod的迷你热销趋势中,推出了1000台,但苹果已经推出了ipod Nano,并发布了ipod迷你停售消息。这保持了该产品的差异化优势,而索尼一直落后一步。此外,苹果的新品上市时,索尼只是预告,新产品需要等待两个月,使得苹果很长时间享受价格溢价,索尼的产品定价过高,但索尼的销量太小,只能“撇”到极小的“油脂”。因此,索尼的定价策略并不成功。索尼失败的原因之一是品牌的质量和市场的速度。因此,并不是所有的产品都适合这种定价策略。

四、总结

由于消费者的收入不同,消费心理不同,对产品的需求也不同,特别是对新产品的需求不同,有求新心理的消费者总是愿意先尝试新产品,而其他消费者则更愿意等待、看一看,充分利用消费者的一些特点。它最大的优势在于,高价格、小批量的渐进促销策略可以使企业随时了解市场,反映市场的变化,从而做出适当的决策,避免生产大量产品的积累和浪费所造成的风险。最大的缺点是他没有指出价格有多高,而是要想出一个合适的方法,他必须使用某种定价方法。一般来说,定价策略可以为我们提供一种思路,价格先高后低,恰当的使用会给企业带来丰厚的效益,最重要的是吸引更多的消费者。

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会计论文代写-会计专业毕业论文怎么写?

会计论文代写

学习会计专业的小伙伴,都会面临毕业论文这一道槛。虽然,平时在上课期间,也完成了大大小小很多论文,但是在毕业论文的写作,和平时的小文章,还是存在很大区别。

(A)选题要求

1.正确。具有一定的现实意义和理论意义。

2.足够的材料。有足够的资料证明。

3.选题范围适中。它不应该太大或太小。主张“大惊小怪”,深入讨论某个关键问题,讲清楚。

(B)选择方向

一,会计方面:广泛的学科,包括管理会计和成本会计。

例如:会计信息质量管理;会计(与具体标准有关);会计信息市场;资本市场;会计信息失真和治理;会计准则:一般准则与具体标准之间的关系;具体标准的适用问题。成本会计:与此会计有关。管理会计:成本决策、投资决策等,选择一个来写。

注:如果你想写一个大问题(旧话题),很难答辩,但是前人研究充分,容易通过。比如关于会计信息的失真和处理。一些新话题,前人研究不足,难通过,如环境会计、绿色会计、人力资源会计等。

论文的写作太枯燥,会导致失败。

二,财务方面:在财务管理(管理会计)方面,它将更多地应用于相关的数学模型中,引用大量的数字信息。如财务管理环境、制度、公司结构、资本结构等。

三、审计方面:审计材料丰富,案例很多。

例如。审计状况,注册会计师的社会责任,注册会计师民事责任,注册会计师验资,注册会计师人力预测,注册会计师风险预防问题,入世后的会计市场,审计市场,一些企业需要国际注册会计师干预。

四、电算化

会计电算化:计算机化的会计效应,计算机化的内部控制功能,

2.财务方面:使用计算机制定决策和建立模型。

3.使用计算机审核。

(C)如何写

首先,选择您感兴趣的主题,让导师指导你。

其次,选择步骤如下:

1.查看大量信息并查找感兴趣的问题。查找报纸,书籍,杂志,摘录和索引。最后,总结一下感兴趣的内容。

另:a:如果你同意书中的观点,你可以根据作者的想法写作。

b:如果你不同意,你也可以提出自己的观点。当然,导师会更喜欢第二种情况,尽量形成自己的观点并提出自己的观点。

2.选择主题时必须有理论上的支持。

第三,书面注意事项:

1、论文应突出观点,切入要点。一定要写出提纲,排除与论文无关的内容,所以要突出论点,围绕着中心。

2.论点足以围绕论点:

引用数据需要指明来源,使用他人的信息来澄清他们的论点,不要脱离上下文。当你有多个论点时,要注意选择最有说服力的论点。

逻辑推理是正确的:应该有原因和后果,贯穿于开始和结束。可以采用演绎法和归纳法。注意数据的相关性。在文章中添加太多信息会影响文章的逻辑一致性。影响文章的表现力。

(d)总结

首先必须提交大纲,大纲应体现逻辑。在概要的基础上,澄清了一些需要强调的问题。然后去寻找信息,不断丰富相关资料,找到最有说服力的信息,并注意选择。最后,文章应该再读几遍,做必要的调整。如果你有任何问题,你必须向你的导师询问,并与他们沟通你的想法。

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经济论文代写- methodology怎么写?

经济论文代写

经济类毕业论文中都被要求写方法论(Methodology),很多同学都对methodology表示完全不懂。其实,方法论就是这篇毕业论文所运用的方法是什么,为什么用这样的方法,采用这种方法的步骤。

经济论文代写-Methodology通常分两步:

第一步解释研究途径(research approach,你需要解释做什么研究,在哪里做研究,为什么这样做以及你需要确定用何种研究方法,比如是定量分析还是定性分析等等。

第二步阐述你的研究设计(research design,你需要详细解释到你的数据来源,会得出一个什么样的数据分析预测等等。

经济论文代写-Methodology结构

1.引言

在引言部分,需要概括一下要涉及到什么内容,比如研究设计,数据收集方法,样本选择以及道德考虑和研究局限性等等。

2.介绍研究设计

解释是采取了定性研究还是定量研究,为什么要用这种方法(定性or定量),这种方法的优点,对你论文的适用性是什么以及它的局限性。

3.介绍研究途径

研究途径通常分为三种,即positivism(实证主义),interpretivism(解释主义),post positivism(后实证主义)。

一般情况下,Positivism一般用于自然科学例如商科等毕业论文写作。需要用到定量分析。

Interpretivism一般用于人文社科等文科类科学,需要用到定性析。

post positivism适用于objective world by subjective experience。这种情况下会同时运用到定量与定性分析。这里同样要介绍采用了何种研究途径,为什么要用它,以及优缺点。

4.介绍数据收集方法和工具

在这一部分你要详细解释你的数据来源。

具体来说,定量分析需要进行数据收集,收集过程分为一手数据(问卷调查)和二手数据(如公司年报,股票证券的历史数据等等)。

而定性分析则通过interview(访谈)来实现。这一部分同样要解释选择这种数据收集方法的原因,优点以及局限性。

5.介绍研究实验或访谈的样本和参与者

由于无法将某一群体全部纳入为研究对象,因此便需要抽样。

在这一部分,需要介绍样本抽样的策略,比如是随机抽样还是非随机抽样。

此外,还要介绍访谈或实验研究中的人或研究对象。要详细说明为什么要选择它作为研究对象,包括时间、地点、名称。

6. 研究的时间和流程

研究的时间和流程也是Methodology中非常重要的部分。

需要说明研究的开始和结束时间,以及研究的流程步骤。

e.g. The researcher contacted the respondents by email and asked them to participate in the research after explaining the nature and the scope of the study.

7. 数据分析

在完成前面的步骤之后,紧接着就是详细分析数据资料。

如果在数据分析的过程中有用到一些辅助软件的话也可以适当说明。

8. 伦理考量

在这一部分,同学们需要提及伦理问题(Ethical issues,说明你是如何获得对受访者的访问权限, 受访者是否签署知情同意书。

知情同意书通常放在附录中,这一部分内容大概算是英国论文特色吧。

e.g. all participants reported their written acceptance regarding their participation in the research, through a signed Consent and Briefing Letter.

9. 研究局限性

局限性是在国外写论文的永恒内容,所谓critical thinking的集中体现。

这一部分也是methodology的最后内容也是精华所在。

在这里同学们要详细的介绍一下在进行本研究时遇到的若干问题和挑战。

例如,样本的规模相对较小,对研究的可靠性产生了挑战;再比如,仅使用定性(定量)研究所产生的问题等等。

以上便是写methodology的全部逻辑结构,希望这样总结下来,对同学们在写方法论的时候能够有所帮助。

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英文论文代写-教你写Reflection Paper

英文论文代写

Reflection Paper,反思论文,与其他学术论文不同,反思性论文不是基于事实,也不是基于研究。它是关于讲述你的故事,反映你的性格、经历和想法,更像是讲一个故事或一本日记。在阅读了你的反思文章后,读者对你有了更好的理解。

对于美国的一种论文写作类型-个人反思性写作,目的不仅是重述故事,而且是为了吸引读者阅读。作者必须反思自己的经历,描述事件对自己的变化和生活的影响。这样的文章通常是关于生活中的事件,这些事件对你有积极或消极的影响。反思性论文也可以是对作品的分析和总结,联系作品和个人经历,深入思考作品对你的影响。

Reflection的写作要求你真正反思自己以及这个事件对你的影响。思考记忆中的感觉,你对事件的感觉,思考想法和意见,并考虑事件的影响。

你从自己身上学到了什么?

你是怎么长大的?发展?变化?

如果这篇文章是关于一部作品的,你需要在读它的时候写下你的想法。如果这篇文章是关于一件事,你可以从三个角度思考:过去的经验,具体的描述,和反思。

Reflective和Narrative Essay的区别。

Reflective Essay反思,轻叙述。所以对于过去经历的叙述不应该占太多的篇幅,一般是全文的10%就可以。剩下90%是反思的部分。

Introduction

吸引读者眼球,引出文章内容。

举例: We found Buffy head-to-toe covered in tar, starved and fur in patches, under an abandoned garbage truck.

The thesis statement: 主旨句需要包括两个部分,对事件的简单介绍,和简单介绍文章内容。

举例: That summer’s volunteering experience at the animal shelter inspired me to pursue this type of work in the future.

Body Paragraph

按时间顺序来组织Reflective Essay的主体段落。主体段落需要展现故事的线性发展,其中包括开端(exposition),矛盾(conflict),解决矛盾(resolution)。

Expectations of the event: 对事件的期望, 对事件的第一印象。

The experience: 事件真实发生经历

Discoveries: 新的发现

Conclusion

结尾段是对整篇文章的总结和升华,不仅要对事件做一个简单概括,更要引出事件对你的影响,对将来的启示。

Wrap up your ideas: 想法的总结

Demonstrate development: 对未来的启示

举例: Buffy’s case inspired me to pursue a career in veterinary and one day also work in an animal shelter.

词汇的使用

大量形容词的词汇积累对于写作个人反思性文章是非常重要的。

尽量不要使用这样的形容词,比如‘happy’ or ‘sad’ or ‘nice’ or ‘good’ or ‘OK’,这些形容词既不能真正反映你对某事物的真实感受,也不能反映你的写作风格。

成功的个人写作也需要使用大量的动词。动词可以帮助你正确地向读者传达你是如何做的,以及你在做这件事时的实际感受。

尽量不要使用已经过度使用的动词,如‘said’ or ‘went’ or ‘walked’ or ‘laughed’ or ‘cried’。

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英语论文代写-语法检测神器推荐

英语论文代写

为了减少写作论文时的语法错误,我们可以在日常写作过程中多加注意和练习,多加检查。同时,君道论文还推荐了一些网站和软件来帮助你修改语法,希望能帮助你写作。

▼ Grammarly

目前Grammarrly使用了相对最优、最广泛的语法检查工具,支持Chrome,Safari,Firefox扩展插件、嵌入式word,Outlook。软件版可以在OS和Windows系统中同时使用。

不管是免费版还是收费版,Grammary都有语法纠正,标点符号修正,词句的润色(结合内容,提出最适合的词汇),句子的构造优化,feedback等功能。付费版有专家校对、英语论文检查等功能。这是目前使用人数最多的语法修正工具之一。

▼ WhiteSmoke

WhiteSmoke也是一个常见的语法检查工具。除了目前的软件版本,不能在苹果系统操作使用外,该平台的基本用途与Grammarly相同。

WhiteSmoke还提供语法错误纠正、标点符号修改、词句修饰、句子结构优化等功能, WhiteSmoke的基本版本也提供了写作建议,以检查文章的长度是否符合要求和翻译。此外,WhiteSmoke还会提供大量的写作模板,我们也可以从写作过程中学习。

▼ Ginger

Ginger是一个在线语法检查工具,与其他语法检查工具略有不同,Ginger不仅标记语法错误,而且直接进行纠正。此外,Ginger还能智能检测文章的风格,并根据不同文体的写作要求对文章的语法进行修改和调整。其缺点是Ginger Web版本检测的字数有限,因此它相对适合于短文或直接使用Ginger插件版本修改。

▼ ProWritingAid

ProWritingAid是修改并改进英文文章的软件。ProWritingAid主要提供编辑文章的服务。重复检索模糊表达、句子长度变化、过度依赖副词、被动词形、过度复杂句子结构等要素,提出改善句子和段落质量的建议。同时,自动地指出不恰当言词的修正。

▼ Hemingway Editor

既然取了文豪海明威这个名字,这个语法检验的道具当然尊重海明威的简洁有力的作风。除了基本的语法检查功能以外,Hemingway Editor把重点放在句子的结构、时态词等的修正上。例如,文章太长,表达不清楚时,会用红色表示,建议修改和替换。如果有更简单的词语替换的部分,会用紫色表示,提供替代方案。如果检测出来被动语态,则用绿色表示。

虽然说这么多,但还是要注意。这样的语言检测工具,无论是否收费,都只能覆盖25%到30%的语法错误和语言表达错误。在英语的表达上,除了语法、单词、句子以外,文章的语言表现、逻辑、链接是否顺利、主题是否一致等,需要人工识别。如果你想修改essay,只有寻找专业essay代写机构,才能立于不败之地。

结语

如何你需要论文代写,快找君道论文。我们帮你解决所有留学中遇到的论文难题。

君道论文:www.jundao.org

微信:chrz1996

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国外论文代写-essay目录自动生成

写过论文的同学都知道,每篇论文都是需要做目录的,方便读者了解你论文的框架。但是越是简单的事情越是难做好,尤其是长篇大论的几万字论文写好了,让做一个目录布置如何是好,一个一个打上去,敲空格对齐那就太耗时费力了,今天就给大家介绍一下如何目录自动生成的步骤。

假如文章中标题格式为

第一节。。。。。大标题(一级标题)

  1. 。。。小标题(二级标题)
    1. 。。。小标题小的小标题(三级标题)

第N节。。。。大标题(一级)

N.1。。。小标题(二级标题)

N.1.1。。。小标题小的小标题(三级标题)

论文自动生成操作(WPS,个人电脑是WPS,所以以WPS文档为例)

步骤一:设置标题格式

首先选中文章中的一级标题;在“样式与格式”工具栏,鼠标放在右下角箭头,会出现“样式与格式”的对话框。点击图一中的 “右下角箭头”,会在文档的右侧跳出对话框。

然后单击“标题1”(如下图3红色箭头所示),一级标题便可生成;随后根据论文要求,选中已完成的标题1,设置好字体,字号等格式,

当我们完成第一个一级标题后,随后文章内所有的一级标题,我们可以利用工具栏里的格式刷“”将所有大标题生成一级标题。具体操作步骤如下:

首先选中已生成一级标题的大标题,然后点击“格式刷”,

然后鼠标点击选中需要生成一级标题的大标题,松开鼠标,第二处一级标题便可生成。

这样其他剩余所有的需要生成一级标题的大标题,便可仿照如此步骤完成。

用同样的办法可以设置二级、三级….标题,区别就是在“大纲级别”里相应选择2级、3级…等。

步骤2:正文页码设置

鼠标双击页脚,根据论文要求,设置页码格式。正文第一页的页码为1.

步骤三:论文目录自动生成

把鼠标放到像插入目录的位置(一般放到文章第二页(第一页为题目)的首行第一个字符左侧)——目录应放在文章的前面。然后在工具栏点击“引用”。

点击最左侧目录,点击“自动目录”

点击“自动目录”,目录便可自动生成,

到此,论文目录自动生成便可完成。

但是,别高兴的太早,你可能发现自动生成的目录与你想象的格式不太一样,例如行距太大啦,字号太小啦等等。这就需要你选中全部目录,然后在“格式”-“段落”里设置“行间距”了,与编辑正文的方式一样,不罗嗦了。

还有一个问题需要注意的是:目录部分的页码和正文部分的页码编码是不同的,通常,正文部分是阿拉伯数字,但是目录部分的页码是罗马格式,且是小写。所以同学们在生成目录之后,还需要调节目录页的页码。

以上便是论文目录自动生成的方法,虽然我的是WPS文档,但是方法都是可以融会贯通的,同学们照着步骤,摸索着,操作几遍,便可学会论文的目录自动生成!