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MBA论文代写-resist change



Why do people resist change at work and how can this resistance be overcome from an HR perspective?

1. Introduction

Change is a common feature of the workplace. This paper examines why people resist change at work. It then explores how this resistance can be surmounted from an HR viewpoint.

2. Resistance to change at work

From research into individual and organisational behaviour, it is well established that people at work can sometimes resist change (Robbins, 1992). The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) define resistance to change at work as “an individual or group engaging in acts to block or disrupt an attempt to introduce change” (CIPD, 2014, p.2) and argue that, in general, resistance to change in the workplace occurs in two ways: “resistance to the content of change” and “resistance to the process of change” (CIPD, 2014, p.2).

The reasons for resistance to change at work are numerous. Resisting change enables stability and for the status quo at work to be maintained (Robbins, 1992). Change jeopardises the comfort zones and security of employees who are risk averse and who like familiarity (Holbeche, 2001). The fear of the unknown may result in resistance to change (Robbins, 1992). There may be resistance when change appears to threaten someone’s income (Robbins, 1992). Change can appear threatening to the individual worker when it is foisted on them top down without their input as they do not feel in control (Holbeche 2001).

Gifford et al (2012), in their review of change programmes in NHS South of England, found that “many people do embrace change, but it is easy to feel undermined or threatened by it, even if one accepts at a broad level that change is needed. As well as the challenge of embracing new ways of working, it can be hard to let go of the old ways. Not only do people have ingrained habits and ways of thinking; they also become skilled in familiar work and may feel that their credibility is based upon it. For example, if someone spends years honing skills in a specific procedure and is then told they should be using a completely different technique, this may cut at their sense of self worth” (Gifford et al, 2012, p. 15).

Thus, there may be resistance if a person’s perception of how the world of work should be is threatened. Robbins (1992) explains that “individuals shape their world through their perceptions. Once they have created this world, it resists change. So individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact” (Robbins, 1992, p.281).

Psychologists have studied resistance to change and it has been recognised that change may involve a significant shift for the individual, like a bereavement, where what was once certain is no longer so and they have to relinquish the familiar in order to be able to embed change (Holbeche, 2001).

The psychological contract is an important consideration when looking at resistance to change at work. Guest and Conway (2002) defined the psychological contract as “the perceptions of both parties to the employment relationship, organisation and individual, of the reciprocal promises and obligations implied in that relationship” (Guest and Conway, 2002, p.22). The CIPD (2005) argue that the psychological contract is “now best seen as a tool that can help employers negotiate the inevitable process of change so as to achieve their business objective without sacrificing the support and co-operation of employees along the way” (CIPD, 2005, p.4).

CIPD (2005) commented that people expected commitments made to them by management to be honoured and that management should make the effort to do so. Where management is not able to honour a commitment, attempts should be made, however difficult, to explain why and its impact on the employee. A breach of the psychological contract is likely to result in employees having a negative attitude to their employer which would include resistance to change. A case study at a Scottish manufacturing plant, where employees believed that the psychological contract had been breached by the employer, noted that the regular imposition of change programmes had resulted in a high level of cynicism amongst supervisors and shop floor staff (Pate, Martins and Staines 2000).

If there is a lot of organisational change in a workplace, it is likely to be negatively received by its staff (CIPD, 2005;Guest and Conway 2001). Furthermore, where there is frequent change, it is likely to result in staff believing that management do not know what they are doing and their trust in them declines (CIPD 2005) (Guest and Conway 2001).

In spite of all the above, research into change management reveals that there are things that can be done to alleviate resistance to change.

3. Overcoming resistance to change: the HR viewpoint

3.1 Adopt a positive approach to resistance at work

Resistance to change can be a cue for stakeholders in an organisation to have a meaningful debate about the merits of the proposed change. This may lead to amendments and improvements to the change (Robbins 1992).

3.2 The need to understand why change is happening

Research has shown that it is important for staff to understand why change is happening in terms how it will benefit the business and ideally how will it benefit them.

In the Gifford et al (2012) review of change programmes across the NHS South of England, it concluded that “leaders need to sell the benefits of the change. To do this they need to express their vision in a way that makes it easy for stakeholders to relate it to the purpose and values of the NHS and to their own principles and motivations” (Gifford et al., 2012, p.5). Gifford et al (2012) added that “purpose and vision [of the change programme] are crucial factors” (Gifford et al., 2012, p. 51) that should be communicated in many ways to make sure the message connects with the stakeholders.

In redundancy situations, Holbeche (2001) discovered that there was a “link between the perceived reason for the delayering and the effect on employees. If people thought that the reason for the delayering was simply cost cutting, their morale and motivation tended to be more adversely affected than where there appeared to be a more ‘strategic’ reason for the change” (Holbeche, 2001, 367).

3.3 Communication

Communication plays a critical part in helping staff understand why change is happening and in feeling engaged in the change process. Internal communication mechanisms which enable staff to feel empowered and involved are key to minimising resistance. Two way communication mechanisms like attitude surveys can be effective, but only if visible changes arise as a result (Holbeche, 2001). Other forms of communication that can help are senior management presentations (where questions can be asked and answered), road shows, team briefings and management cascades, question and answer mechanisms (for example by email) and internal newsletters (Holbeche, 2001).

Communication should ideally involve an element of being two way and should include all stakeholders. The CIPD (2005) found that top down communiques by senior managers were perhaps the most ineffectual way of delivering important messages to staff. Mission statements were slightly more effectual, but the most successful way of reaching staff with messages that they are likely to believe is through line managers (CIPD, 2005).

In recent times, storytelling, narratives and theatre have been used in change situations as innovative ways of communicating with staff in order to get them engaged and involved. These methods allow for a move away from top down senior management communication (Daley and Browning, 2014, Dennis, 2010, Thomas and Northcote, 2012).

Formal communication, in times of change, should:

  • Inform – about the organizational/ personal implications
  • Clarify – the reason for the change, the strategy and benefits
  • Provide direction – about the emerging vision, values and desired behaviours
  • Focus – on immediate work priorities and actions, together with medium term goals
  • Reassure – that the organisation will treat them [staff] with respect and dignity” (Holbeche, 2001, p.368).

3.4 Staff engagement

Those affected by the change need to feel engaged so that they believe that they are invested in the change. This can be time consuming and difficult for those leading the change (CIPD 2005, Gifford et al. 2012). Engagement can mean getting staff to buy into change that has already been devised or it can mean getting staff involved in actually designing the change (Gifford et al., 2012). Leaders need to be clear about what level of engagement is being offered as unfulfilled expectations risk demotivating staff and weakening good will. (Gifford et al, 2012).

Bearing in mind the psychological contract, the CIPD (2005) argue that managing change well involves getting employees’ buy-in and making sure that they are not caught unawares. Employees want fair treatment and it is important that they believe that they can trust management. As stated earlier, if employees’ expectations are not to be met, the reason why should be explained by management (CIPD, 2005).

3.5 Leadership

Those in leadership positions in the organisation have to act as role models for change to be successful. If the behaviour of the leaders in an organisation is at odds with their verbal utterances in a change situation, it can result in cynicism in staff and thus resistance to change.

Holbeche (2001) reports of a case study where company directors were charged with leading an organisational change involving paying particular attention to the customer. The directors talked to staff about the importance of the organisation’s values, especially teamwork. However, staff knew that the senior leadership team did not work well as a team and thus, the change message was being met with cynicism. When the Chief Executive took drastic action and threatened to punish the directors financially, that was when the directors became serious about role modelling good team work and effective leadership. As a result, the change message became believable to staff.

3.6 Apply learning from neuroscience

Dowling (2014) explored the connection between neuroscience and change management. He found that neuroplasticity, the concept of the adult brain being able to change through specific activity and experiences, was applicable in change situations, if it was self-directed by the individual employee. He advised that employers should give their employees the latitude to have their own insights into the proposed change and that this would allow new neural pathways to be formed in the employees’ brain, making sustainable change possible.

Downing (2014) also explored the impact of threat and reward on employees’ behaviour. He argued that when a person is faced with a perceived threat, the brain has an inbuilt defence mechanism which is activated. This provides some explanation as to why there is resistance at work when an employee feels threatened. This argument reinforces the need for those leading the change to emphasize the benefits of the proposed change so that the employee’s brain reward response is activated as opposed to their threat response.

Downing (2014) additionally looked at habit and how the prefrontal cortex of the human brain (the advanced cognition brain area) operates primarily on the basis of habit, otherwise it would be using a huge amount of energy which would not be sustainable. During periods of change, when individuals are being required to adopt new habits, a heavy burden is potentially being placed on the prefrontal cortex. When designing change programmes, there needs to be an awareness of the brain’s limited capacity for change (Downing, 2014, Scarlett, 2013).

3.7 HR

HR has a pivotal role to play in staff communication and engagement as well as in planning change effectively, including taking into account the learnings from neuroscience. There has to be a real partnership between the business and HR for change to be effective. HR plays a role in assisting, developing and supporting those in leadership positions to be effective in their roles so as not to undermine the success of the change programme and engender resistance to change (Holbeche, 2001, CIPD, 2005, Gifford et al., 2012).

4. Conclusion

Although resistance to change is something that occurs in the workplace for many understandable reasons, it can be minimised by good communication and staff engagement, explaining the need for change in terms of its benefits to the business and to the individual member of staff, learning from research, effective leadership as well as HR working well with the business and being an integral part of the change. Overcoming resistance at work matters, as while resistance is occurring, it may result in negative consequences such as having a negative impact on performance and productivity, creating an environment for turf wars at work as well as demoralising and demotivating staff (Holbeche, 2001,Robbins 1992, Cannon and McGee 2008, Hughes, 2010).

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Boeing 747 Jumbo Jet: The aircraft that changed the world


In the early days of commercial airline transport, air travel saw a large increase in travellers and airport congestion rising in the 1960s. This era of commercial airline travel was led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and the Douglas DC-8, both of which had revolutionized the standard for long-distance travel. With the increase of commercial airline passengers and the relatively small aircrafts available at the time, airport congestion was becoming a major problem in the industry. Juan Trippe, of Pan Am (Pan American World Airways), one of the Boeing’s most important airline customers thought this problem could be addressed by a newer and larger aircraft.

在商业航空运输的早期阶段,因航空旅行导致的拥堵情况,在20世纪60年代大幅增加。这个商业航空旅行的时代是由波音707和道格拉斯DC-8的巨大普及引领的,这两者都彻底改变了长途旅行的标准。随着商用航空公司乘客和当时可用的相对较小的飞机的增加,机场拥堵成为该行业的主要问题。来自Pan Am(泛美航空公司)的Juan Trippe是波音最重要的航空公司客户之一,他们认为这个问题可以通过制造更新更大的飞机解决。

During the summer of 1965 on a quiet fishing trip in Alaska, Bill Allen of Boeing and Juan Trippe of Pan Am, the two biggest names in the aviation industry at the time, Trippe told Allen of his vision for a super plane. Trippe wanted an aircraft that was two and a half times larger than any other passenger aircraft that had ever existed before. Both Trippe and Allen were reaching retirement, and both wanted to leave their mark in the aviation industry. It was at this point when the birth story of the Boeing 747 began and would change the aviation industry forever.

1965年夏天,在阿拉斯加安静的钓鱼之旅中,波音公司的 Bill Allen 和泛美航空公司的 Juan Trippe(当时是航空业的两大知名人士), Trippe 告诉 Allen他对超级飞机的看法。 Trippe 想要的飞机,比以前所有的客机大两倍半。当时,Trippe和Allen都退休了,他们都想在航空业留下自己的印记。正是在这一时刻,波音747的诞生故事才开始,并将永远改变航空业。


In April 1966, Trippe had signed for an order for 25 of the newly proposed super jets and for them to be called the 747. This was one the largest aircraft orders ever to be made in history. This costs for this order at the time came to a total of approximately US$525 million dollars which translates to a value of a staggering US$4.2 billion dollars today. Allen had also agreed that Trippe could have his order in just a mere 28 months. This had set an almost impossible challenge for Boeing’s engineers to complete.

1966年4月,Trippe 签署了25架新提出的超级喷气式飞机的订单,并将其命名为747.这是有史以来规模最大的飞机订单之一。这笔订单当时的成本总计约为5.25亿美元,相当于今天价值惊人的42亿美元。Allen也认为可以在短短28个月内完成订单。这为波音公司的工程师们,制定了几乎不可能的挑战。

Joe Sutter, a young aeronautical engineer whom graduated from the University of Washington in 1943 was transferred from Boeing’s 737 development team to lead and manage the team for the development and design of the new 747 as the Chief Engineer. This was Sutter’s first big break as an engineer. With a small team of only 20 members, Sutter and his team were required to go through preliminary studies for this aircraft which provided them with their first challenge for the development of the 747 as at the time all they knew was that the aircraft had to be bigger, have good range and go as fast as possible. Back then, Sutter was only a junior engineer in the company and often faced a hostile reception from the more senior engineers of the company. Despite the size of the project Sutter and his team were facing and how they were working around the clock, they were still not Boeing’s number one priority. At the time, the development of the 747 was overshadowed by the development of a supersonic transport aircraft in which Boeing believed would be the future of the aviation industry. This meant that Boeing’s best talent and resources was directed into the development of this aircraft.

Joe Sutter是一位年轻的航空工程师,1943年毕业于华盛顿大学,他被从波音737开发团队调来,负责领导和管理团队,负责开发和设计新747作为总工程师。这是Sutter作为工程师的第一次重大突破。由于只有20名成员的小团队,Sutter和他的团队对这架飞机进行了初步研究,这是747制造的第一个挑战,因为他们只知道飞机必须更大更快。那时候,Sutter只是该公司的一名初级工程师,经常面临高级工程师的敌意。当时,747的发展被超音速运输机的发展所掩盖,波音认为这将成为航空工业的未来。这意味着波音公司最好的人才和资源被用于开发这架飞机。

A supersonic transport aircraft that was designed to travel at three times the speed of sound and to compete with its European supersonic rival, Concorde, which was also in its development stage. When the supersonic transport aircraft was to be completed and come into service, Boeing’s 747 would then be relegated to shipping freight. This influenced the design of the 747 so that it be adapted easily to carry freight and heavy cargo and to remain in production even if the sales of the passenger version were to decline. Because of this, the 747 was almost expected to be an afterthought and Boeing didn’t expect for more than 50 of the 747s to be made and until the supersonic aircraft was completed, the 747 was playing second fiddle the whole time. This lead to Sutter and his team being shoved into old premises and starved of resources making their challenge even more difficult than before.


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谈到战略类英文论文的写作,我们不得不提一下 reference 参考文献。在国外,合理正确地使用参考文献非常重要。外国对知识产权有严格的保护,不能容忍抄袭。学习成绩差或学术不诚实是学生被开除的主要原因。因此,抄袭不仅会影响自己的表现,还可能被驱逐出境。我相信虽然你不刻意抄袭,当你面对很多论文任务时,很容易忘记引用,或者不知道如何引用。国外大学如何确定抄袭?什么是抄袭?如何避免剽窃?



每个学校的study guidance里面,都会解释抄袭的定义,以及告诉你如何避免这个问题。

以University of Oxford为例,Plagiarism的定义是:Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own, with or without their consent, by incorporating it into your work without full acknowledgement. All published and unpublished material, whether in manu, printed or electronic form, is covered under this definition.








Making notes


Wikipedia is not a reliable source


Paraphrasing carefully

其实,在写论文的时候并不需要你要写出最新的观点,或是提出别人都没有说过的观点,而是要学会critical thinking,学会转述他人的观点,通过自己的理解和整理,最后用自己的语言和表达方式写出来。

Use of Quotations and Cite all sources used

注意使用引号,正确使用文中引用和文献清单。另外,根据不同的学科,也会有不同的引用格式,例如,社会科学,传媒,法律就会有不同的style,如APA, OSCOLA, Harvard等等。

以Harvard system为例:


Examples (Harvard system)

The author writes “…plants and localities are also often inter-related with non-local actors” (Eriksson 2009, 29).

“Place specific phenomena can always be seen in relation to other places and geographical levels” (Helgesson 2006, 13).

or directly

Helgesson (2006, 13) states : “Place specific phenomena can always be seen in relation to other places and geographical levels.”


Source with one author

The structure of the European Union is often described in the shape of three pillars (Tallberg 2004, 65).

You can also reference directly.

Tallberg (2004, 65) describes the structure of the European Union in the shape of three pillars.


Books with one Author

Include (if available): author’s last name and first name; title; edition (if not 1st); place of publication and publisher, year of publication.


Bryman, Alan. Social research methods.3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford university press, 2008.

Use Wtire-N-Cite or Endnote

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Lester, James D., and James D. Lester, Jr. Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide. New York: Pearson Longman, 2005.


Becker, Howard S. Tricks of the Trade: How to Think about Your Research While You’re Doing It. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998.


Mauch, James E., and Jack W. Birch. Guide to the Successful Thesis and Dissertation: Conception to Publication: A Handbook for Students and Faculty. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc, 1983.


How to Write a Thesis


Guide to Student Papers


The Research project


Writing the Research and Term Paper


Berry, Richard. The Research Project: How to Write it. 3rd ed. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.

本书介绍论文写作的几种基础技巧:<论文的选择:使用图书馆>、 <书目的准备>、<作笔记> 、<实际撰写>、<最后定稿>,辅以一位学生的论文作为样 。其后,作者提示了如何将论文转为合宜出版的格式。

Davis and Parker. Writing the Doctoral Dissertation: A Systematic Approach. Woodbury, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, 1979.


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1. 哈根达斯是一个全球冰淇淋品牌,1921年由鲁姆-马特斯在纽约创立。哈根达斯采用纯天然材料,不含任何色素防腐剂等。纽约杂志曾将哈根达斯誉为“冰淇淋劳斯莱斯”,到目前为止,世界各地的人们都知道,哈根达斯已经成为高端冰淇淋的象征。哈根达斯采用撇脂定价,由于哈根达斯的总运营成本,他不得不不断宣传其原材料来源的全球化,以及他的专卖店的浪漫布局,给人们以爱的感觉,以使消费者表现出对产品的高质量和高追求。此外,哈根达斯没有竞争对手推出相同的产品,企业的产品具有明显的差异化优势。




5、索尼公司最近几年在推出新产品时都步履蹒跚,在苹果的ipod mini热卖潮流中推出了针对此产品的A1000,可是苹果相继推出的是ipod nano并发布ipod mini停产的消息,苹果保持了产品的差别化优势,而索尼却总是在产品上落后一大步。此外,苹果推出产品马上就可以在市场上买到,而索尼还只是预告,新产品上市还需要等两个月,这两者的速度差距远不可比,使得苹果在很长时间内还是能享受到撇指定价的厚利,而索尼的产品虽然定价同样高,但是索尼的销售量实在太小而只能“撇”到非常小的“脂”。所以索尼公司采用的撇指定价并没有获得成功。索尼失败的一个原因就是品牌的品质和上市速度。所以并不是所有的产品都适合这种定价策略的。

近年来,索尼在推出新产品方面步履蹒跚,在苹果ipod的迷你热销趋势中,推出了1000台,但苹果已经推出了ipod Nano,并发布了ipod迷你停售消息。这保持了该产品的差异化优势,而索尼一直落后一步。此外,苹果的新品上市时,索尼只是预告,新产品需要等待两个月,使得苹果很长时间享受价格溢价,索尼的产品定价过高,但索尼的销量太小,只能“撇”到极小的“油脂”。因此,索尼的定价策略并不成功。索尼失败的原因之一是品牌的质量和市场的速度。因此,并不是所有的产品都适合这种定价策略。



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经济论文代写- methodology怎么写?




第一步解释研究途径(research approach,你需要解释做什么研究,在哪里做研究,为什么这样做以及你需要确定用何种研究方法,比如是定量分析还是定性分析等等。

第二步阐述你的研究设计(research design,你需要详细解释到你的数据来源,会得出一个什么样的数据分析预测等等。







研究途径通常分为三种,即positivism(实证主义),interpretivism(解释主义),post positivism(后实证主义)。



post positivism适用于objective world by subjective experience。这种情况下会同时运用到定量与定性分析。这里同样要介绍采用了何种研究途径,为什么要用它,以及优缺点。









6. 研究的时间和流程



e.g. The researcher contacted the respondents by email and asked them to participate in the research after explaining the nature and the scope of the study.

7. 数据分析



8. 伦理考量

在这一部分,同学们需要提及伦理问题(Ethical issues,说明你是如何获得对受访者的访问权限, 受访者是否签署知情同意书。


e.g. all participants reported their written acceptance regarding their participation in the research, through a signed Consent and Briefing Letter.

9. 研究局限性

局限性是在国外写论文的永恒内容,所谓critical thinking的集中体现。





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英文论文代写-教你写Reflection Paper


Reflection Paper,反思论文,与其他学术论文不同,反思性论文不是基于事实,也不是基于研究。它是关于讲述你的故事,反映你的性格、经历和想法,更像是讲一个故事或一本日记。在阅读了你的反思文章后,读者对你有了更好的理解。






Reflective和Narrative Essay的区别。

Reflective Essay反思,轻叙述。所以对于过去经历的叙述不应该占太多的篇幅,一般是全文的10%就可以。剩下90%是反思的部分。



举例: We found Buffy head-to-toe covered in tar, starved and fur in patches, under an abandoned garbage truck.

The thesis statement: 主旨句需要包括两个部分,对事件的简单介绍,和简单介绍文章内容。

举例: That summer’s volunteering experience at the animal shelter inspired me to pursue this type of work in the future.

Body Paragraph

按时间顺序来组织Reflective Essay的主体段落。主体段落需要展现故事的线性发展,其中包括开端(exposition),矛盾(conflict),解决矛盾(resolution)。

Expectations of the event: 对事件的期望, 对事件的第一印象。

The experience: 事件真实发生经历

Discoveries: 新的发现



Wrap up your ideas: 想法的总结

Demonstrate development: 对未来的启示

举例: Buffy’s case inspired me to pursue a career in veterinary and one day also work in an animal shelter.



尽量不要使用这样的形容词,比如‘happy’ or ‘sad’ or ‘nice’ or ‘good’ or ‘OK’,这些形容词既不能真正反映你对某事物的真实感受,也不能反映你的写作风格。


尽量不要使用已经过度使用的动词,如‘said’ or ‘went’ or ‘walked’ or ‘laughed’ or ‘cried’。

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▼ Grammarly



▼ WhiteSmoke


WhiteSmoke还提供语法错误纠正、标点符号修改、词句修饰、句子结构优化等功能, WhiteSmoke的基本版本也提供了写作建议,以检查文章的长度是否符合要求和翻译。此外,WhiteSmoke还会提供大量的写作模板,我们也可以从写作过程中学习。

▼ Ginger

Ginger是一个在线语法检查工具,与其他语法检查工具略有不同,Ginger不仅标记语法错误,而且直接进行纠正。此外,Ginger还能智能检测文章的风格,并根据不同文体的写作要求对文章的语法进行修改和调整。其缺点是Ginger Web版本检测的字数有限,因此它相对适合于短文或直接使用Ginger插件版本修改。

▼ ProWritingAid


▼ Hemingway Editor

既然取了文豪海明威这个名字,这个语法检验的道具当然尊重海明威的简洁有力的作风。除了基本的语法检查功能以外,Hemingway Editor把重点放在句子的结构、时态词等的修正上。例如,文章太长,表达不清楚时,会用红色表示,建议修改和替换。如果有更简单的词语替换的部分,会用紫色表示,提供替代方案。如果检测出来被动语态,则用绿色表示。






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  1. 。。。小标题(二级标题)
    1. 。。。小标题小的小标题(三级标题)






首先选中文章中的一级标题;在“样式与格式”工具栏,鼠标放在右下角箭头,会出现“样式与格式”的对话框。点击图一中的 “右下角箭头”,会在文档的右侧跳出对话框。