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文献评论(A critical analysis of a Journal article)怎么写?

journal article


首先我们要了解什么是文献评论。文献评论有时也被叫做“source critique”. 但是,这并不意味着当同学们评价一篇期刊时,必须消极的批判它。同学们需要仔细的阅读这篇文章,近距离地分析,并对文章形成公正的评价,包括文章所涉及的积极的和消极的方面。为了保证能够达到批判性分析的目的,同学们必须要深入了解文章所要表达的内容。同时你也需要阅读一些其他的相关的材料,帮助客观分析当前的期刊论文。批判性分析是一个复杂的,认知性过程,需要同学们利用批判性的思维方式对文章进行公平的评论。具体来讲,批判性分析期刊论文需要做到下面几点:

reading the text carefully and understanding it fully


forming objective evaluation of the text (may need to read other sources on similar topics)


examining each section and addressing the clarity, original approach, quality of research, strengths and weaknesses and the overall value.

检查期刊论文的每部分内容,考虑期刊论文中涉及的清晰新颖的方法 研究质量,优势与劣势,以及期刊论文整体的价值。

providing justifications to your evaluations.



journal aricle

了解完什么是文献评论,接下来我们来讨论如何完成一篇critical analysis of a journal article. 在开始阅读文献之前,同学们需要就文献问自己一些问题,以帮助自己更好的理解将要评论的文章,也为了完成一篇更好的文献评论。具体问题如下:

Full reference Title of the source Type of the source What is the title of the source? What does it imply? What type of source is it? When was it published? Is it an up-to-date source?
Intended audience What type of reader is the source intended for? Is the source aimed at a specialised or a general audience? Does the source provide basic, advanced, technical or general information? What is the purpose of the source: informative, instructive, persuasive or descriptive?
Relevance What is the topic of the source? Is the source relevant to your essay/module/course? Does the source provide specific enough information or is it too general?
Structure Does the source have an abstract? Is it clear? Does it summarise all sections of the source? How many sections does the source have? Are they clearly indicated? Are the research focus, research aims and objectives clearly stated and justified?
Literature Review Does the source provide completely new information based on primary research or does it repeat information from other sources – secondary research? Are references to other sources evident? Is the literature review well-structured with logical progression of ideas? Has the author used literature relevant to the research aims? Has the author discussed all key areas of the subject in sufficient detail? Has the author provided sufficient evaluative comments on the literature that was discussed? Has the author made any major assumptions?
Objectivity Is the information presented in the source factual or opinion-based? Has the information been well-researched and is it reliable or does it seem to be an opinion unsupported by evidence? Are the author‟s views similar to other writers within the same discipline or are the views profoundly different? If different, a closer critical analysis of the source should be done. Has the author provided equal amount of information for both sides of the argument or is one side more discussed than the other? If so, do you think the author might be biased? What bias can you identify – political, institutional or personal? Are there any pieces of information that have been omitted? If so, why might that be?
Methodology Methods Rationale Has the author clearly stated and justified the methodology, methods? Has the author related (provided a justification) the methodology, methods to the research aims and objectives? Has the author provided sufficient information on the methods and strategies used to carry out the research? Are they clearly explained? Has the author provided clear information on the sample used in his research and has he considered the ethics? Can you observe any issues with the methods/sample/ethical considerations? If yes/no – write about it. What alternative approaches could be suggested to conduct this particular research? Why? Would they provide better results? Has the author clearly stated any limitations of their research?
Findings Has the author clearly described the methods of analysing the data? Has the author clearly presented the results and findings? Are they major or secondary findings? Do they confirm what other authors found out or are they totally different and new? Has the author used any visuals to present the results? Are they clear? Are they the best methods to visualise the results?
Discussion and conclusions Has the data been clearly and sufficiently discussed/ interpreted?  Has the author linked their results to the research aims and objectives and the literature review? Has the author provided clear conclusions and are the conclusions based on the findings?
Writing style:   Logic Emotional language Evidence Does the author present information in a logical order? Is the text easy to read or is it confusing? Can you clearly identify main points and supporting ideas? Can you easily identify the author‟s central argument – thesis statement? Is that central argument well supported with relevant and sufficient evidence or is it just an opinion? Does the author use any statistics and examples? Are they accurate, can they be checked?
Language Has the author used clear, simple or rather sophisticated, technical and confusing language? Can you find examples of that language? Why do you think the author would use sophisticated, confusing language? Has the author used objective, cautious language (may, can, might, etc.) or have they used emotional (extremely, amazing, etc.) and very definite (something definitely is, I know something for sure, etc.) language?
Critical reviews Has this source been critically peer reviewed? Are the reviews positive? Do reviewers/critics have the same opinion about the source or is there a debate among them?

带着这些问题读完需要批判性分析的文献,相信同学们对此文献应该有了一个深入的理解。接下来,就需要开始critical analysis of a journal article的写作。当然,这里同学们最好遵循期刊的结构和标题,这样可以帮助同学们客观评价文章的所有章节。此外,当同学们在阅读文献的时候,最好在文献上做一些批注,然后根据在文献上的批注,列出文献评论文章的结构。这里,同学们就需要回顾上述列表中的问题,保证你论文的结构和主要观点符合逻辑顺序。最后同学们可以根据下述结构,开始自己critical analysis of a journal article的写作。

Introduction(First paragraph):

  • Information about the author, title of the article, type of source
  • Intended audience and the purpose of the source
  • Topic and the relevance of the source
  • Abstract and structure of the article

Main body section:

  • Literature Review
  • Objectivity
  • Methodology
  • Findings
  • Discussion and conclusions
  • Writing style
  • Language
  • Critical reviews
  • Comparison to another source (only if asked to do)


  • Summary of your analysis

当你完成第一稿后,你需要认真的进行检查,包括语法,词汇,标点,拼写,观点组织和文本内引用。有一点需要注意的是,当你做critical review of a journal article时, 你要确保你的观点合乎逻辑,避免重复。如果你需要重复一些观点,尽量用不同的方式来表达这些观点—可以利用同义词或者改写等。

上述是君道论文小编对如何写critical analysis of journal article的一些建议,同学们看到这里也许会似懂非懂的。什么也不多,给大家一个具体的例子,帮助同学们更好的理解和消化君道论文小编在上述文章中提到的写作技巧和步骤:

Critical Analysis of a Research Paper

Towards an integrated contingency framework for MAS sophistication

Case studies on the scope of accounting instruments in Dutch power and gas companies


The title suggests that the article will give guidance towards a contingency framework for MAS sophistication. The Contingency framework states that there is no one right way to manage an organisation, so the part “towards integrated […] framework” with the word “contingency” seems like a paradox. We feel that we might not have chosen this article if we were looking at the title only because it seemingly contradicts itself.

The group agreed that the title is quite long. We have analysed it by defining the main words of which we used the Macmillan Dictionary (2002) (See appendix B).

After understanding the words and theory explanation, the title became quite easy to understand.

Abstract and Introduction

We feel that the abstract provides concise and simple information. It is a good explanation and expansion of the title. We have chosen this article because it can be easily understood. The abstract states that many companies are being convinced to implement newly developed management accounting systems and also comments on its inappropriateness. The author states the reason for this is due to the contingency theory perspective. She also highlights that this article is based on the cases of two power and gas companies.

The introduction is interesting and very informative. It lays out very clearly what the author will discuss by dividing the article into sections and also talks about the „sophisticated‟ techniques such as ABC. She also identifies that the causes and criticism of MAS sophistication is due to the methodology of research undertaken in previous years like the cross sectional survey method.

With this mind, Tillema (2005) says that she will try to overcome the weaknesses by using different approaches of research.

This article relates to Management Accounting Systems and its instruments, contingency theory and two case companies. It is divided into 5 main sections, which helps with the reading because it is very long.

The author is an academic staff member of the Faculty of Economics at the University of Groningen, from which she graduated. She is an assistant professor in finance and management accounting and is involved in the university‟s management accounting and finance courses. Her main focus for researches is a wide area of management accounting (University of Groningen, no date).

We think that she knows the topic very well considering she teaches Management Accounting at the University. The research that she undertakes is convincingly reliable which we think is highly significant and logical as her main focus is on management accounting.

Critical Analysis

We believe that the main issue of this article is the inappropriate implementation of the MAS without taking into account the contingency theory. The author mentions that researchers found  out that the introduction of sophisticated accounting techniques was often unsuccessful due to the lack of consideration of various contingent variables. It seems that managers want to find the best way to make their specific company successful when implementing new MAS‟s. We agreed that the sophisticated techniques are dependent on the environment in which they are used and this is where contingency theory becomes very important. We think that the article highlights the problem really well and feel it is a good pointer in dealing with the contingency framework and the scope of accounting information.

Every business may introduce different accounting techniques at various levels of sophistication. Hence the need for contingent approaches i.e. what suits the organisation? This paper identifies the contingent factors for the sophistication of accounting instruments in two Dutch companies.

In addition, the author tries to answer three questions: “Which contingency factors influence the scope of accounting instruments? […] How these contingency factors interact with each other and with the various characteristic of organisations and their environment? […] Which mechanisms explain the scope of accounting instruments?” We think that the author writes the article answering the three questions whilst explaining her findings which she summarises really well.

The author‟s intention is to improve awareness about contingency theory by describing its factors with reference to the two case studies. We think that the target audience are all people interested in management accounting as well as students.


We think that the author has provided a research framework in a positive way because it is highly detailed and could be helpful in guiding further research. This framework was planned in three stages.

In the first stage, the author used the two largest Dutch power and gas companies to support her study. Here, she mentioned that her main reason were changes in the scope of accounting instruments in a short period of time within the companies. The change of accounting instruments used occurred respectively with regard to the company‟s structures.

In the second stage, she collected data through interviews. The data were then compared for verification to the data from document analysis which we think is a better research method.

compared to sending postal questionnaires. The process of the interview was well carried out in the sense that the accountant of a specific department was interviewed before the managing director of that department.

The final stage was data analysis which was done in two stages: the first was within-case analysis and the second cross-case analysis. Each within-case analysis started by sorting out the case company‟s past, current and future accounting instrument regarding their scope. We all agreed that the method used for the research was efficient and substantial.


The result from the empirical research indicates that nine contingency factors have a direct influence on the scope of accounting instruments. The author relates the existence of contingency factors (appendix C) with different level of the organisation (beyond-organisation, organisation and sub-units, operating task, accounting tasks).

Beyond the organisational level, the author revealed that regulations, accounting innovations and trends will influence the scope of accounting instruments used by organisations. She supported this assertion by defining the adoption of management accounting techniques such as balance score card, the economic value added activity and shareholders‟ value. However, we feel that it would have been very helpful if the author tells us in this paper the effects of the adoption of these instruments on the performance of those Dutch companies and support them with some financial data.

The author relates the two Dutch companies with willingness or potential willingness to embrace broader accounting instruments by their shift from a more focus on “implicit non-financial measure” (Tillema, 2005) to a more financial performance related behaviour. Here we feel that the author is trying to convince us that the change of a company financial objective should always be followed by its shift to the accounting instruments used. We can justify this statement on the basis of the two case studies.

At the operating task level, the author defined the visibility of financial consequences of the operating task as a factor that influences the scope of accounting instruments. This is because it gives detailed information on the cost incurred with the activities of those companies.

With regard to the complexity of operating tasks, the author thinks that it may, in certain circumstance, be subjective to influence the scope of accounting instruments. For instance cost- benefit analysis may imply the use of average or broad accounting instruments whereas restricting costs or expenditures may imply the use of narrow accounting instruments (Tillema, 2005). In addition, we understand from the case that in the dynamic environment, acceptable forecast of the future financial situation requires investigations of the financial consequences on the possible future market circumstances. Another example is that the case companies introduced several broad scope instruments since their environments have become far more dynamic. This was due to the liberalisation of the energy market and the introduction of external telecommunications products.

At the accounting task level, the empirical research revealed two factors as direct consequences of the type of accounting instruments used in the companies‟ accounting instruments. These factors are: the significance of accounting instruments and the clarity of accounting instruments. According to the author one of the case companies‟ that is concerned with only energy supply experienced low cost in its decision making which was done in a low frequency base using narrow accounting instruments. Moreover the author related the use of this narrow accounting instrument in the event of uncertainty of financial consequences of a decision.

The author informs us only about some facts related to the case companies. It would be better to have some practical examples on the financial performance of the companies. It would support managers when making decisions in the future.

Conclusion and Discussion

We think that the conclusion is pretty much straight to the point defining outcomes of the research. She answers well, in our opinion, all three questions from the introduction. She says that scope of accounting instruments is influenced by many of the contingency factors and there are few factors, which communicate with institutional context of these instruments.

The author recognised that the other research methods used in other case studies i.e. (cross sectional) are considered as inadequate by academics but has produced one consistent variable (dynamism of the environment). We think this is an important factor as other research has proved this to be a common factor including the comparison article by Abdel-Kadera and Luther (2008).

This article based on two case studies shown “the relationship between a known contingency factor and the scope of MAS” (Tillema, 2005).

As a group, we thought this article has been written with precision having carried out extensive research and taken into consideration other factors like the mindset of managers and accountants with personal face to face interviews.

The author suggests areas of improvement and also gives own recommendations on her article. She suggests how her research paper could be improved by investigating whether the contingency framework developed in this paper is useful in explaining the scope of the accounting instruments of organisations that were not included in the empirical research. We could not agree more with this statement because by doing so, it enriches the article and adds more substance to it. Evidently, this has been carried out in the comparison article; here they carry out the research on the food and drinks Industry.

Another suggestion she makes is to find contingency factors at the individual level of analysis.

Overall, a very good article, it covers a lot of factors and explains the points concisely based on extensive research and case studies about the sophistication of MAS in relation to contingency theory. Not only does the article do this well but the author also recommends ways in which it could be better understood.

Comparison to another article

„The Impact of Firm Characteristics on Management Accounting Practices: A UK-based Empirical Analysis‟ by Abdel-Kadera and Luther (2008) is the article we have chosen for comparison.

This article was chosen because the topics are similar. It attempts to explain why firms adopt different management accounting techniques, particularly in the UK. The article by Tillema (2005) has also been referenced in support to their article because it explains same issues in relation to the contingency theory and management accounting sophistication. It is a more recent version compared to the article by Tillema (2005) and also looks at a different type of manufacturing industry.

This article uses empirical research meaning the data is based on experiments and observation as well as interviews much like Tillema (2005) did. However, we think there is a weakness in the way the research was conducted. Much of the empirical data was done through postal questionnaires and a limited number of face to face interviews were carried out (Abdel-Kadera and Luther, 2008). Whereas Tillema research methodology is more efficient and gives a better view on the various aspects of difference in management accounting practises; it is precise and more accurate.

Both articles come to a conclusion that difference arise in management accounting practises and MA sophistication because of the external environment and operating activities. Abdel-Kadera and Luther go further by stating that customer power, decentralisation and size also affect the accounting practices. (Appendix A)

We feel that the article by Tillema is very evident and well researched. It has an edge over this article and that is why she has been referenced extensively. We also think that both articles have a common conclusion with slight differences and additions being made in this article.

Appendix A

Appendix A

Appendix B

Towards:      nearer to a particular result used for showing how a process is developing in a way that will produce a particular result

Integrated:   combining things, people, or ideas of different types in one effective unit, group, or system

Sophistication:the quality of knowing and understanding a lot about a complicated subject Scope:   the things that a particular activity, organisation or subject deals with

Appendix C

Contingency factors:

Accounting innovations and trends


importance of financial objectives,

interaction between organization and organizational parts,

the visibility of operating task,

the complexity of operating task,

the dynamism of the environments,

The significances of financial consequences

the clarity of financial consequences


Abdel-Kader, M., & Luther, R. (2008). The impact of firm characteristics on management accounting practices: A UK-based empirical analysis. The British Accounting Review, 40(1), 2-27. doi:10.1016/

Kaplan, R.S. (1986). Accounting lag: The obsolescence of Cost Accounting Systems. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Rundell, M. (2007). Macmillan English dictionary for Advanced Learners. Oxford: Macmillan.

Tillema, S. (2005). Towards an integrated contingency framework from MAS sophistication: Case studies on the scope of accounting instruments in Dutch power and gas companies. Management Accounting Research, 16(1), 101.

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总的来讲,Report通常以简短,精确和简明的段落来表达文章的内容,旨在分析和报告调研结果(A report is a type of academic assignment that presents information in short, precise and concise paragraphs to report and analyse the findings)。Report通常是由多个部分构成,每个部分都需要有标题(headings)和副标题 (subheadings), 要点(bullet points)或者标题数字(Numbers), 这样同学们才能清楚的组织文章思想逻辑和段落。每个部分根据其写作目的的不同,是会有不同的写作风格。一般来讲,主要有三种:解释(explanatory),描述(descriptive),分析(analytical)。其次,一篇report需要包含图形(Graphs),图表(Charts),表格(Tables)等,这样同学们才能既简明又生动的为读者呈现报告的内容,而不是用冗长的描述性方式。此外,一篇report需要包含建议部分(recommendation section)。建议部分必须是基于研究的结果来撰写,主要是为未来的行为提供建议。

下面,我们来具体说明report论文的不同之处。写过报告的留学生们会发现,大部分的report作业要求都会为将要研究的问题提供一个特殊的情景和脚本。比如:“You are a manufacturing manager of the H&M clothing company. Recently, your department has been engaged in a new project on how to improve the production process within the company. You need to write a report to the Board of Directors describing the project you were involved in, including methods of conducting the project, findings, explanations of findings and recommendations for improvements”对于此类report要求,同学们需要在情境中快速找到关键问题之所在。同学们可以通过“How”“what”等疑问词快速找到问题的所在。比如上述情景,我们可以发现,老师想要同学们解决的问题为“how to improve the production process within the company”. 也就是,老师为如何完善生产工艺这个问题提供了一个脚本,而同学们作为服装业的生产经理需要提出一个行之有效的办法来解决这个问题。老师之所以给出情景是为了帮助同学们将理论概念和实际相结合,更加投入的进行问题的调研。当然,除了提供脚本,另外还有一种report作业要求形式,便是直接给出问题。比如,“Produce a report examining the impact the last recession had on UK airports.” 对于此类report论文的写作要求,同学们就需要迅速找到key words,以及他们之间的关系。比如上述题目,同学们可以发现此题目的关键词为“the last recession” “impact” and “UK airports”. 因此,对于此篇论文,同学们就需要探讨至少以下三个问题:最近经济衰退对顾客和飞机吞吐量的影响(The effect on passenger and freight throughput),最近经济衰退和航空运输经济周期之间的关系(The relationship between the last recession and the economic cycles that can be identified in air transport),经济衰退后航空运输业的发展(Developments in the industry after the recession)。

了解完report论文的问题形式,接下来君道小编进入到report论文结构的重点讨论。Report一般包含title page, 内容提要(executive summary), 引言(introduction),主体部分(subject sections),研究方法(methods), 结果(results),讨论(discussions),结论和建议 (conclusions and recommendations),附件(appendices)和参考文献(references list)(如图1)。内容提要主要是总结研究的主要结果,结论和建议。引言部分主要是表明文章想要达到的目的和报告主要包含的内容。在引言中,文章必须对报告的背景进行简单描述,并给出报告的研究目的和目标。对于文章的主题部分,需要利用合适的标题把文章分成不同的部分。此外,每篇报告的写作要求都是不同的,所以会需要不同的标题。同学们在开始列结构之前一定要认真阅读report写作要求。结论和建议部分是总结研究重要的关键点,并基于结论提出合理的建议。附件主要包含文章中用到的数据,图标,计算公式等。参考文献需要包含所有在report正文中用到的文献。这里要注意,要使用正确的文献格式,通常来讲,一般有APA格式和Harvard格式,具体同学们可根据自身学校的要求决定。

图1—Structure of report writing


  1. Structure for Business report

题目页(Title page

姓名(Name), 学号(student number), 科目名字(module name), 课程代码(module code)和导师姓名( tutor’s name).

内容提要(Executive summary)

简要总结主要调查结果,结论和建议(Brief summary of main findings, conclusion and recommendations.)

Table of contents


概述论文将要涉及的内容,以什么样的逻辑进行,开展此论文的原因,以及报告涉及的相关研究背景(Outline what you will be writing about, in what order and why, with very brief relevant background information.)


讨论关键内容,研究结果,以及阐述相关结果(Discussion of key areas, findings, explanation of the results)


总结报告得出的关键结论 (Summarise the key points of what has been found out.)


基于研究结果,为未来的行动提出可行性建议。这部分可以包含在conclusion里,也可以作为独立的章节存在。具体根据老师要求进行(Based on the findings, write recommendations for future action. This could be included within the conclusion section or it may be a separate section. Refer to your assignment brief or ask your tutor for guidelines.)


文章中出现的数据,图表和计算公式等(Any extra information that did not fit in the main body of the report. Any charts, graphs or calculations. Each appendix should be numbered e.g. Appendix 1, it should also have a title and a reference.)


Report正文中用到的所有文献;要注意文献的额引用方式(APA/Harvard)(Books, articles, journals or texts that have been used as source material.)

2.Structure for Research report

Title page:

Name, student number, module name, module code and tutor’s name.

Executive Summary (Abstract): may be optional

Brief summary of main findings, conclusion and recommendations.

Table of contents:


Outline what you will be writing about, in what order and why, with relevant background information.

二.Main body sections: Report and analyse what was done and make sure evidence is included. Organise ideas into sections – use headings and subheadings:

1. 文献综述(Literature Review:

1.1 Subject section

1.2 Subject section

2. 方法论(Methodology

2.1 How you did your research(如何做研究)

2.2 How you collected data(如何收集数据)

3. Results and findings

3.1 Description of the results + visuals

4. Discussion

4.1 Discussion of key areas, explanation of the results


Summarise the key points of what has been found out.


Based on the findings, write recommendations for future action. This could be included within the conclusion section or it may be a separate section. Refer to your assignment brief or ask your tutor for guidelines.


Any extra information that did not fit in the main body of the report. Any charts, graphs or calculations. Each appendix should be numbered e.g. Appendix 1, it should also have a title and a reference.


Books, articles, journals or texts that have been used as source material.


Difference between report writing and essay writing
An Essay(论文) A report (报告)
Presents a point of view (给出问题观点) Presents information (给出问题的背景信息等)
Describes an opinion and analyses it(描述观点并分析) Describes findings and analyses them (描述结果并分析)
Is written in formal style and single narrative voice from beginning to end (检查文章从头至尾是否使用的单一叙事手法) Is written in a formal style and in sections which may use different styles of writing (不同的部分会使用不同的写作风格)
Ideas linked into cohesive paragraphs (观点和段落紧密结合) Short, concise and precise paragraphs (要求段落要简短,简明,意思精确)
Uses mostly full sentences to articulate points of view (主要利用段落首句来表明观点) Uses headings, sub-headings and bullet points/numbers/letters to articulate the information (利用标题,副标题等明确有力的展示信息,表达观点)
Rarely includes visuals (很少包含图形) Usually includes visuals, e.g.graphs, diagrams, charts (经常使用图形表达,例如图形,图表,表格)
Finishes with a conclusions (文章结尾处总结观点) May be followed by recommendations (文章最后很根据分析和结论,就某一问题提出发展建议)


此外,君道论文小编还要和大家说一下,上述文章结构中提到的writing style问题。Reports在不同的部分,基于不同的写作目的,会使用不同的写作风格(different styles of writing)(如图2)。通常情况下,Introduction部分会运用解释(explanatory),以清楚的给出报告展开的背景和目标。方法论通常会运用事实性描述(descriptive),客观的给出报告研究的结果和结论。讨论部分通常会运用分析(analytical)的写作手法。通过分析的手法,把复杂的现象分解成许多简单组成部分,分别进行研究,找出事物的内在矛盾,并对矛盾的各个方面进行深入研究。剔除那些偶然的、非本质的东西,抽象出必然的、本质的因素,并由此得出一些反映本质的简单规定,以把握矛盾的各个方面的特殊性。

图2 corresponding writing style for difference report sections

其次,Report 通常会使用被动式来表达需要采取的研究活动和报告研究的结果。这是因为被动式更加的正式,更加的适合学术写作。比如:The experiment was conducted (Passive voice);it is found out that … …。此外,report应该使用简短,精炼的句子。此外同学们写作report时,还需注意:

the past tense(一般过去时) when you are reporting on something that happened in the past.

the present tense(现在时) when you are reporting other authors’ research.

the present tense(现在时) when you are explaining the results of your research.


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案例分析如何写?case study高分技巧

所谓Case study就是指案例分析,中国留学生们最为头痛的作业形式之一,case study即案例研究报告,与其他论文作业不同的是,Case Study除了阐述必要的研究问题和总结外,更重要的就是过程。而Case Study着重的内容就是通过研究对象作为案例来展现整个研究过程,并且证明研究结果。因此留学生作业Case Study写作过程要符合逻辑,在阐述研究问题时一定要清晰明了,需要用实际案例来分析作者观点,并且如始至终都要围绕论点。整个分析过程,包括研究方法和理论都是用来证明作者的结论的正确性。因此,这正是中国留学生们写不好Case Study的难点。事实上,Case study写作中虽然有一定的难度,但是万变不离其宗,大家只要掌握好英国Case study的写作技巧,按照要求去写就好了。下面君道论文小编就给大家说下case study写作的相关知识。


我的大学导师曾经给我们解释过Case studies,具体如下:

• knowledge and understanding of real-life institutional issues

• opportunities for analysis from the managerial perspective

• an opportunity to relate theory to practice

• a chance to evaluate the solutions and to provide recommendations for future improvements

• if a group project = share ideas as well as gain ideas from the others

• if an individual project = use critical-analytical and problem-solving skills when analysing and evaluating a case and to suggest innovative solutions to raised issues


了解完case study的涵义,相信同学们应该对其有了一个大概的了解。那么这里我们便来说明一下case study分析的写作技巧。首先,同学们要确定case study的类型,设计或风格最适合你的目标受众。公司可以选择说明性case study来说明客户所做的事情;学校、教育工作者和学生可以选择累积的或关键的case study,法律团队可以展示探索性的case study作为提供事实证据的方法。无论你采用哪种案例研究方法,你的目的都是要彻底地分析一种情况(或“案例”),它可以揭示其他被忽略或不知道的因素或信息。这些可以写关于公司,整个国家,甚至个人。此篇文章我们注重说明同学们遇到最多的商业案例分析。


其次,要确定案例的主题。主题既为你所要解决问题的核心,因此,主题的提炼必须十分准确,且具有鲜明的特点,能够一下子抓住读者的眼球。并且主题的选择必须具有代表性,不要贪大求全,要从一个点找到突破口,抓住重点,切忌面面俱到。随后,一旦你选择了你的角度,你需要确定你的研究将会是什么以及它将在哪里发生。你在课堂上讲了些什么?你在阅读过程中发现自己提出问题了吗?在图书馆和/或互联网上开始你的研究,开始研究一个特定的问题。当你把主题搜索范围缩小到一个特定的问题,你可以从各种不同的来源找到尽可能多的信息。你可以搜索已发表在相同或类似主题上的case study。查阅书籍、期刊、DVD、网站、杂志、报纸等的信息。当你浏览每一个信息的时候,记下足够的笔记,这样你以后就能找到这些信息! 还可以回顾在风格和范围上类似的范例case study,以了解组成和格式的概念。 

随后,同学们便可以开始其case study analysis (侧重商科) 的写作。这里主要有7个步骤(通用):

1.Background information about the institution and its development over time:

company reports (you can find them on Summon in Subject Databases) to find out about the structure of the company, management structure, employees, income, profit, costs, support structures, etc.

information about different developmental strategies that have been used in this particular institution

the decision making processes

the institutional competitive environment

the customers of the institution

the main issues that occurred within the institution (very important)

2.Evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of the institution (SWOT analysis):

draft the strengths and weaknesses of the company

identify threats and opportunities for the institution

3.Evaluate the environments of the institution:

company environment

4.Apply different models in your analysis to suggest the improvements in the environment:

Internal  –  e.g. M’s Model: Men, Money, Materials, Minutes, Machinery.

External – Micro-environment, e.g. Porter’s 5 Forces Model

Macro-environment, e.g. PESTEL Model, PEST Model

5.Make suggestions on how the institution can use its strengths for further and better development and how the weaknesses can be turned into strengths.

6.Analyse and evaluate different strategies that the institution has used, identify risk factors:

corporate level

business level

functional level

7.Make justified solutions and recommendations for future improvements

provide alternative recommendations to the ones that you have suggested



最后,形成案例分析的具体方案。在对问题存在原因分析的基础上,有针对性地提出解决问题的系统思路,如:提出战略目标,对策措施和实施途径等。主要包括:⑴ 改进的内容,⑵ 改进的途径,⑶ 改进的方法,形成结论与启示。主要包括:⑴ 发现了什么新问题及其产生的新原因,这一点前面已经提及,在此要作以精要的概述,控制好篇幅,避免引起概念的冲突或者内容的冗余繁杂;⑵ 提出了什么样的解决问题的新途径、新方式,这一部分是关键点,你的核心思想都要在此精要的提出和再次阐述,也是全文的核心价值体现之处;⑶ 提出了哪些新的研究内容与新的观点,这一部分与第二部分具有相同的地位作用,但又有区别,后者更具有理论深度,前者更强调的实践可操作性;⑷ 研究结果有何借鉴和推广意义,一切的学术研究都要回归现实问题,体现出研究的现实意义,引起人们的重视;⑸ 主体部分要求图表清晰,叙述流畅,纸面整洁,章节有序,层次分明。


Step 1: Investigate the Company’s History and Growth

公司的过去可以极大地影响组织的现在和未来状态。 首先,调查公司的创始,关键事件,结构和增长。创建事件,问题和成就的时间表。 这个时间表将为下一步派上用场。

Step 2: Identify Strengths and Weaknesses

使用你在第一步中收集的信息,继续检查并列出公司的价值创造功能。 例如,该公司可能在产品开发方面表现不佳,但在营销方面表现强劲。 列出已发生的问题并记下它们对公司的影响。

你还应该列出公司擅长的领域。 请注意这些事件的影响。

你基本上是进行部分SWOT分析,以更好地了解公司的优势和劣势。 SWOT分析涉及记录内部优势(S)和弱点(W)以及外部机会(O)和威胁(T)等内容。

Step 3: Examine the External Environment

第三步涉及识别公司外部环境中的机会和威胁。 这是SWOT分析的第二部分(O和T)发挥作用的地方。需要注意的特殊项目包括行业内的竞争,讨价还价能力以及替代产品的威胁。 一些机会的例子包括扩展到新市场或新技术。 威胁的一些例子包括竞争加剧和利率上升。

Step 4: Analyze Your Findings

使用步骤2和3中的信息,为案例研究分析的这一部分创建评估。 将公司内部的优势和劣势与外部威胁和机遇进行比较。 确定公司是否处于强有力的竞争地位,并决定它是否能够以目前的速度成功继续。

Step 5: Identify Corporate-Level Strategy

要确定公司的企业级战略,请确定并评估公司的目标任务,目标和行动。 分析公司的业务及其子公司和收购。 你还想讨论公司战略的利弊,以确定变更是否可能在短期或长期内使公司受益。

Step 6: Identify Business-Level Strategy

到目前为止,你的案例研究分析已经确定了公司的企业级战略。 要执行完整分析,你需要确定公司的业务级策略。(注意:如果是一个单一的企业,没有多个公司,而不是整个行业的审查,企业战略和业务级战略是相同的。)对于这一部分,你应该识别和分析每个公司的 竞争战略,营销战略,成本和一般焦点。

Step 7: Analyze Implementations

这部分要求你识别和分析公司用于实施其业务战略的结构和控制系统。 评估组织变更,层次结构级别,员工奖励,冲突以及对你正在分析的公司非常重要的其他问题。

step 8: Make Recommendations

案例研究分析的最后部分应包括你对公司的建议。你提出的每项建议都应基于分析的上下文并为其提供支持。绝不分享预感或做出毫无根据的建议。你还需要确保你建议的解决方案实际上是现实的。如果由于某种限制而无法实施解决方案,则它们不够现实,无法进行最终切割。最后,考虑一些你考虑和拒绝的替代解决方案。 写下拒绝这些解决方案的原因。

Step 9: Review

完成写作后查看分析。 批评你的工作,以确保涵盖每一步。 寻找语法错误,错误的句子结构或其他可以改进的东西。 它应该清晰,准确,专业。

总之,案例分析法的操作性要求很强,但也要具有一定的理论作为支撑和服务。论文的案例分析法运用,要做到目的性明确,客观性基于事实不虚构,相关性很强聚焦核心要点,灵活性适当把握便于体现思想,最后就是操作性、理论性要有机结合,前者赋予学术研究一定的现实价值,后者赋予学术研究的底蕴厚度,提升论文的价值水平。总之,记住上述战略提示:在开始案例研究分析之前,请先了解案例研究。给自己足够的时间来编写案例研究分析。 你不想急于完成作业。在你的评估中要实事求是。 不要让个人问题和意见影响你的判断。这便是君道小编介绍的关于如何写case studies的全部内容,希望可以帮助同学们完成一篇优秀的case study分析论文。

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“Discussion部分最重要,也最难写,是大家最容易犯错的地方。即使是对一些发了很多文章的老教授来说,这部分仍然是块硬骨头。虽然从一个论文的真正价值角度,讨论部分并不是最重要,一个论文最重要的应该是结果部分,但这部分写起来相对比较容易,因为更八股,更没有太多可变通的余地。但是,对于”Discussion”部分,这部分是英文论文结构当中可以让作者自己自由发挥写作的一部分,同时也是把实验结果上升到理论认识层次的部分。在写作风格上,每个人不一样,有温文尔雅、按部就班的,也有如西部牛仔一样豪放的,都没问题。” 也可以这么说,写论文尤其是讨论部分,并没有非常固定的模式,可以根据个人的习惯和爱好进行一定程度的发挥。因此,大多数留学神对这部分的写作常常毫无头绪。这里君道论文的小编就和同学们分享一些关于Discussion写作方面的知识,帮助大家梳理这部分写作的脉络,以便掌握这部分论文写作的技巧等。







而本文中将给出Discussion部分写作的经典结构 – 俗称“倒漏斗型”(Reverse Funnel):


1、 首先对研究报告进行简短的概述(在包含多个相关研究时这点显得特别重要)【- A brief synopsis of the research reported (particularly important when several related studies are included).】。

2、 描述本研究结果与过去已报道的研究文献的关系,例如:

a. 你的研究结果是否与现有文献相一致?

b. 你的结果如何填补现有文献的空缺?

【 Connections to existing empirical research:

  • How do your results fit with existing literature?
  • How the your results fill a gap in the existing literature? 】

3、 阐明本研究结果与相关理论的关系。 【- Connections to relevant theory. 】

4、 描述和讨论你的研究所存在的不足或局限性。目的是预测Tutor可能提出什么问题并在他们提出之前给予回答。【 Description and discussion of potential limitations, or constraints, on the interpretation of your results. The aim here is to anticipate reviewer or editor objections and provide answers to them, before they are raised. 】

5、 提出本研究在实际情况中的应用,即其存在的意义和应用价值。【Possible applications of the results in practical situations. 】

6、 最后根据研究结果,提出有关未来研究的建议。【Suggestions for future research, building on your results.】




1. 写之前先回顾你前面所写的文献综述部分(literature review)

2. 开始写的时候通过参考文献综述,将你的研究结果也就是finding部分与以前的研究结果进行比较,尤其要比较与先前研究的结果相矛盾的结果。将你的结果与文献综述中讨论的理论联系起来。找到与研究空白(gaps)相关的证据以及研究目的或主要的研究内容。

3. 讨论你的研究的局限性。

4. 为未来的研究提出方向。

如果需要的话,在这一过程中还要不断优化你的文献综述部分,确保讨论部分重要的问题也在文献综述部分存在。建立讨论部分和各个分论题(themes)之间的紧密联系进行这一部分的写作时有一个小窍门,就是列出literature review中每个themes的关键信息清单。 这一清单可以作为你写作过程中的对照检查清单。针对每一个结果的讨论,你不用对下面清单的每一个要点做出解释说明,但是起草讨论部分时值得花时间依序思考每一个要点。


1. 最重要的研究发现的综述,一般按顺序写出其重要性







4. 研究发现的解释,.猜测你获得某些结果的原因。但是解释须有参考文献支持;以及关于研究


5. 进一步研究的建议以及/或实际应用。

6. 研究的蕴含(从结果归纳总结,在更广泛的范围内研究结果含义是什么)。



“所以,Discussion不能过多地罗列和重复结果部分的内容,这是常犯的错误,因为感觉没什么可说的,就重复结果来充数。讨论部分可以就你的实验结果论述与你的结果密切相关的研究现状存在的一系列问题,你的工作是解决的哪一部分问题。”讨论开始时,最好能够开门见山:“Here, we describe…”或“ In this paper, we show that…. ;Importantly, …;suggesting…”。讨论的其他部分也尽量不要赘述,开门点题,下面是一些常用的短语和句式:

“Overall, our studies establish the…”;

“Although there are important discoveries revealed by these studies, there are also limitations. First, …;Second, …; Third, …;Fourth, …;Last, …Overall, …”;

“Furthermore, our results suggest that…”;

“Our results suggest a possibility of…”;

“One important future direction of …is…”;

“To this end, we show that…”;

“However, none of these approaches to date holds the…”;

“Our studies serve as a proof-of-concept that…”;

“This could explain why…”;

“Alternatively,… maybe operative…”;

“Thus, future iterations of … may, in fact, demonstrate even greater potency.”;

“On the other hand, the lack of…”;

“In summary, we have identified…”;

“Our results confirm that…”;

“These studies thus offer a new strategy to treat…”





在文章的最后,小编给大家一些Useful Phrases,方便同学们写作Discussion:

Background information (reference to literature or to research aim/question)

A strong relationship between X and Y has been reported in the literature.

Prior studies that have noted the importance of ……

In reviewing the literature, no data was found on the association between X and Y.As mentioned in the literature review, ……

Very little was found in the literature on the question of …..

Statements of result (usually with reference to results section)

The results of this study show/indicate that …….

This experiment did not detect any evidence for ……

On the question of X, this study found that ……

The current study found that ……

The most interesting finding was that ……

Unexpected outcome

Surprisingly, X was found to …….

Surprisingly, no differences were found in ……

One unanticipated finding was that …..

It is somewhat surprising that no X was noted in this condition ……

What is surprising is that ……

Reference to previous research (support)

This study produced results which corroborate the findings of a great deal of the previous work in this field.

The findings of the current study are consistent with those of Smith and Jones (2001) who found ……

This finding supports previous research into this brain area which links X and Y.

This study confirms that X is associated with ……

This finding corroborates the ideas of Smith and Jones (2008), who suggested that ……

Reference to previous research (contradict)However, the findings of the current study do not support the previous research.

This study has been unable to demonstrate that ……

However, this result has not previously been described.

Explanations for results:

There are several possible explanations for this result.

A possible explanation for this might be that …..

Another possible explanation for this is that ……

This result may be explained by the fact that …../ by a number of different factors.

It is difficult to explain this result, but it might be related to ……

Noting implications

This finding has important implications for developing …..

An implication of this is the possibility that ……

One of the issues that emerges from these findings is

Commenting on findings

However, these results were not very encouraging.

These findings are rather disappointing.

The test was successful as it was able to identify students who ……

Suggestions for future work

However, more research on this topic needs to be undertaken before the association between X and Y is more clearly understood.

Further research should be done to investigate the ……

Research questions that could be asked include …..

Future studies on the current topic are therefore recommended

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Reflection Essay怎么写?

reflection essay

相信在外留学的留学生们对于英国Reflection Essay的写作一定都是不会陌生的,因为Reflection Essay, 也就是反思论文,考验的是我们的评判性思维能力,在国外大学的学习中是经常被要求写作的,他的写作内容是回顾之前的学习生活或者去回顾Reading or writing,去得到了什么样的教训或者经验。作用是用来检测你对自我过去表现的评价,会对你的自我批判性思维的提高有一定的帮助。那么如何才能写好Reflection Essay呢?

Reflective essay作业通常是关于你个人的观点和见解,与学术论文不同,它可以出现第一人称(如:“I”,“my”,“Our”等),也相对来说比较简单,同学们只需要清楚的表达自己的想法。文章的正文中除了总体的介绍和描述主题subject以外,还需要有Judgment和结论,这个部分通常是在文章的后半部分,但是也是非常重要的部分。在这个部分,需要说明你个人的观点和见解,这样会使你的文章更加独特性,并和其他文章有所不同。总之,在你写Reflection Essay之前,你必须明白你所反思的是什么样的问题,自己的观点是怎样的,否则你只会失去你的想法,或许更糟的是,你将会写不出任何有意义的东西。因此,在写作之前,最好整理一下自己的思路。

首先,你需要问自己几个问题,如:对于这个主题我的感觉是什么?它是怎样触动我的,是否是全部的内容?如果它没有触动我,是为什么呢?你需要注意到,问题都是关于个人的。这是因为一篇Reflection Essay是让你表达你的见解的。知道这些个人问题的答案可以帮助你写一篇Reflection Essay。但是你不要仅仅只在这三个问题上限制你自己。你应该要探索更多,然后说出你的意见。忽略事实的真相,专注于你自己的见解。其次,当你有了上述的个人问题的答案后,列出你的答案。然后,总结成一句话。这将是你的主要中心思想或中心论点,这将会引导你思考文章的其他部分。根据的论点,发现支持它的论据或观点。你可能会在一个段落中扩展或写更多关于论据的想法。每一段都将会是你论文的主体。你可以尝试在这些段落中陈述事实,就如你所观察到的,这样你的论据将会变得更有力。事实的充分参考对你的反思是一个很好的方式。随后,在决定了reflection essay的主体段落后,回到你的个人问题。这一次,问问你自己,并确认这些是不是想要写的:这就是我对这个话题真正的感受?这是它如何触动我,关于它的全部内容?它真的没有触动我,原因是哪些?这是一件你在写你的reflection essay后诚实的重申。同学们应该只提供您的真实感想,否则写下来的东西将会远离你反映的主题的真正目的。同时,写下你怎样和为什么会有这些见解。你需要保持一致,避免一个段落的想法与另一个段落的想法发生冲突。最后,简要地总结你的主要观点或论点。你可以用一个问题来结束,问问别人是否和你一样有相同的主题思想。你也可以给你的读者发出一个挑战,比如要求他们说说同一主题的想法并且问同样的问题。无论如何,最重要的是要记住一篇reflection essay通常是一个话题:可能会或可能不会影响你和他人的个人评价。总的来说,写一篇Reflection Essay对于提高你的批判性思维能力来说是一种很好的锻炼。

Reflection essay 主要分为三种,一种是对事件经历的反思,一种是对学习内容的反思。

对以往经验的反思 (Experiential Reflective Essay):

在一些热门的专业里,像商科,护理和教育,反思报告是连接理论和实践的重要部分。 当你被要求反思以往的经历时,不要仅仅只是描述它,而是要结合课程的idea或理论,深入的讨论评估它。你可以基于课程的理论和方法,用专业的技能去评估一个现象,从而提升自己的知识和技能。反思报告是给你一个机会去思考,反思你的选择和行动。 一般,你的反思写作需要包含以下问题:

  • Description – What happened?
  • Analysis – Why did it happen? What were you feeling? What theories might help explain what happened? Are there other perspectives that challenge your views?
  • Outcomes or Action – What did you learn? What would you do differently next time?

阅读后的反思 (reading Reflective Essay):

很多课程会要求同学们写阅读反思(比如reflecting on an educational theory you’ve read about within a unit),一方面的为了平衡评分机制,也是为了鼓励同学们在阅读后多进行思考。通常情况下,导师会提示同学们,什么是他们需要反思的。反思的目的是为了让同学们构建并发表自己的观点。一般,你的反思写作需要包含以下问题:

  • Description – What is the concept, idea or theory you are reflecting on?
  • Analysis – Are there aspects you found particularly interesting or challenging? Does it tie in with anything you have learned in the past? Has it changed the way you think, or affirmed something you already knew?
  • Outcomes or Action – What else might you need to find out? Do you have any questions? How might you incorporate or apply these ideas in the future, perhaps in your professional life?

讨论完reflective essay写作的准备工作和Reflective essay 的分类,这里君道论文的老师重点强调一下reflective essay的写作步骤:




细度这个题目,研究题目具体是哪个方向的内容。如果题目是一个判断,如:X(负向)影响了Y,请critically review这个陈述。这是一个相关关系分析,首先应该弄清楚X有没有影响到Y; 如果影响/没影响到Y,为什么会产生这个现象。关于又需要分析,什么叫X影响到Y,如何来定义与衡量这个影响。涉及到因果关系,要真正确定因果是很难的。我们可以从相关可能性上分析。X的特性是什么,Y的特性是什么,什么因素会影响Y,X有没有这个因素。




写作前一定要把写作思路构建成outline,然后从上往下推敲,看结构与逻辑是否合适,看论据是否充足,能否说服自己。如果连自己都不能说服,肯定需要修改。确定outline以后,就可以正式写作了。写作过程应该严格按照outline,不要随便改结构,也不要想到一个论点感觉挺好就加进去,这样很容易导致逻辑混乱,影响论文质量。中国留学生在essay时还容易出现词不达意,句子冗长等毛病,如果essay比较重要,交上去之前可以拜托君道论文帮忙修改。这里小编为大家提供一个常用的结构(outline),此结构是基于Gibbs (1988) 的Reflection Model 。(因为是英文写作,所以下文我就直接用英语来说明写作结构)具体如下:

Description (descriptive)

Describe in detail the event you are reflecting on: Where you were, who else was there, why you were there, what you were doing, what other people were doing, what the context of the event was, what happened, what your part in this was, what parts the other people played, what the result was.

For example: I visited an employment tribunal services in Leeds, with one of my course colleagues. We were visiting the tribunal so we could experience an employment hearing and gain an understanding what kinds of things were taken to a tribunal, the format and outcomes.

The hearing we got to sit in on was a case of unfair dismissal; we watched the whole process from the judge having some deliberation over whether or not the case should be heard right through to the decision at the end.

We listened to the respondent’s evidence first; in this case it was the company, followed by a cross examination from the judge and her panel and the solicitor of the claimant. Secondly we heard the claimants evidence on the situation then watched him been cross examined.

This was then followed by the solicitor of the claimant and the barrister of the respondent making submission each to the judge upon which she would review everything with her panel and make a decision.

The outcome was decided; it was a case for unfair dismissal as the conduct of the  claimant did not account to gross misconduct in relation to the company’s policies.

Feelings (descriptive)

Why this event was important and how you felt prior to the experience;How you felt during the experience and what your thoughts were at the time What were your reactions to the experience;How you felt about the outcome of the experience What you think now. For example: 篇幅问题,不再赘述,可以联系君道论文的老师,获取更详细的指导。

Evaluation (descriptive)

Try to evaluate or make a judgement about what has happened. Consider the following: What was good about the experience, what was bad or did not go so well. Give specific examples. Mention the strategies that were used to deal with challenging situations. How the experience ended? Was the experience complete or incomplete?

举个例子:Overall the experience as a whole was a very good one. My understanding of tribunals, unfair dismissal and rewards and compensation was significantly increased. Also the discussions with my colleague during the breaks and afterwards helped me by developing what we had experienced but also it identified how differently we both interpreted the same information which also encouraged discussions around who was correct.

I think it helped that we had forward planned and knew what cases were been held on the day and knew exactly what time we needed to be there and had a map of the location.

However, the experience also has some drawbacks for example, I wanted to ask  questions and clarify and research further some of the things that were brought up in the hearing, but because of the situation I couldn’t which has caused some confusion. I guess this trait that I have adopted here is suggesting according to Honey and Mumford I was a theorist, I wanted to take what I had learnt or heard and find out more, put it in to context and test to see if the information was right. Whereas usually I tent to take a more activist approach when learning new things, learning by doing (Honey and Mumford, 1982)

Some of the terminology and expressions that were used in the hearing I was not familiar with which to some extent hindered my learning experience, but over time I will hopefully come more familiar with the language as I widen my exposure through exposing myself to the legal scenarios.

This was the first time I have experienced a tribunal and learning in this environment therefore more exposure may be necessary.

Analysis (analytical)

What sense can you make out of the experience? Look back at things that went well – explain why they went well (causes). What they led to (consequences). How could it have been avoided? Look back at things that went badly – explain why they went badly (causes). What they led to (consequences). How could it have been improved? In what way you contributed to this experience. Was it useful for you? In what way others contributed to this experience. What were their reactions?

Conclusion (descriptive/evaluative)

What you learnt from the experience: about yourself (positive/negative aspects);your knowledge and skills (strengths / weaknesses) what could have been done differently.

Action plan (descriptive)

What you need to improve if you were asked to do this experience again: knowledge, ability, skills, behaviour How are you going to do it? Provide specific actions.

以上便是一篇reflective essay的结构框架。尽管在分类上把Reflection Essay单独归为一种,但实际写作上和普通essay并没太大差别。总的来讲,最关键的就是明确观点,文章的观点是什么,应该一目了然。虽然在写作上还有“先论述,最后提出观点”的写法,但在这里还是推荐先亮出观点,再论述的形式写作。另外,观点一定要明确,要写清楚支持哪个观点,不支持哪个观点,不能含糊不清。比如就不能写某观点在当前情况下是对的,相对观点再

另一种情况下也是对的,让人看不明白到底支持哪一种观点。此外,最重要的就是论述应该有理有据。我的观点是什么,不是我想当然是这样,是有文献支持的、是大众认同的、是调查得到的才有说服力。因此,文中的每一个论文都应该有对应的论据支持,如果引用文献中的原话,记得要注明出处。其次,要注意句子和句子之间的内在逻辑,在一篇文章里,写文章时应该每一句话都是在每个步骤相互贯连的,也可能用这句话而是服务于某个目的的。说一个现象,就得出了一个结论,这是不对的做法。用你精明的双眼不要放过你逻辑上的一点点不合理的地方,不要对你的文章有敷衍的情绪,要对每个细节负责,一定要把每件事情都说清楚啊!能要拥有这样的一个好习惯,这样的习惯可以证明你是一个头脑清晰,负责任的人。最后,同学们的反思要Provide a bigger picture out of your personal story。你这篇essay,不要局限于你自己的故事,讲完就结束,要想让这个essay更有含金量,特别重要的不光就事论事还要一定要升华主旨,写一件事,你自然会得出一些道理,让人们站在更高的角度来理解把这些道理升,而是有了一种代表性,有一种由个体影射整个社会的意义,其实也要靠你自己的三寸不烂之舌。

以上就是关于Reflection  Essay写作的讲解,同学们在写作Reflection  Essay的时候可以按照这样的写作思路去写,或许就可以写出一篇好的Reflection  Essay。

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一篇论文有时少不了要写Literature Review,但对于刚刚接触国外大学论文的同学来说,从大量资料中找到需要的资料并有逻辑的组织这些材料还是有些难度的。这篇文章,君道论文的老师就从概念,写作方法等方面指导学生如何高效的完成一篇文献综述(literature review)。

首先,我们先来说一下文献综述的涵义。通过辅导许多留学生作业,君道论文老师发现,许多同学有时候会混淆“文献综述(Literature Review)” 和“背景描述(Background Description)”的概念。背景描述(Background Description)是需要我们了解该问题产生的背景和来龙去脉,如“英国半导体产业的发展历程”、“国外政府发展半导体产业的政策和问题”等等,这些内容属于“背景描述”,关注的是现实层面问题,严格讲不是“文献综述”。“文献综述”是对学术观点和理论方法的整理。是评论性的(Review就是“评论”的意思),因此要带着作者本人批判的眼光(critical thinking)来归纳和评论文献,而不仅仅是相关领域学术研究的“堆砌”。如下图所示:


根据 La Trobe 大学的学者 Caulley (1992)的论述,文献综述应该:










Caulley (1992)在他的文章中同时也提到,文献综述的最终目的是定义并将正在研究的问题限制在一个合理的范围,避免没有必要的重复工作,并将你的研究放于历史的视角,评估有前景的研究方法(找到我们能用的好的方法,或者给我们提供思路),然后将你的发现与之前的知识联系起来,指导进一步的研究。总之,好的文献综述对所写内容至关重要,会确定争论所在的地方,提出问题并确定需进一步研究的领域。

通过上述论文,我们可以了解:文献综述评论的主线,要按照问题展开,也就是说,别的学者是如何看待和解决你提出的 问题的,他们的方法和理论是否有什么缺陷?要是别的学者已经很完美地解决了你提出的问题,那就没有重复研究的必要了。换句话说,你要明白你的文献综述不应简单的以一系列总结的形式描述他人已发表的文章,而应该采用批判讨论的形式,展现出深刻见解,意识到不同的论点、理论和方法。文献综述应是相关文献的综合与分析,并时刻与你自己的目的和理由相连。这与上述文献综述的写作目的相一致。


首先,我们要了解文献综述的结构(The structure of the literature review)文献综述的总体结构主要取决于你的论文或研究领域。所以,你要做的是分类并比较和对比某一领域不同作者不同的观点等等。综述的结构应该由主题所在领域,有争议的问题或具有不同方法和理论的问题决定。在每个不同的部分,同学们应该讨论不同文献的观点,并且要与自己的研究目标相关联。这时,连接词(linking words)很重要。当你把持相似观点的作者放在一起时,你可使用下面这些单词或短语,类似地,除了…之外,也,同样 。更重要的是,如果有不同意见的观点,你需要利用连接词清楚的表明这些分歧,例如:however, on the other hand, conversely, nevertheless。在综诉的结尾,你需要包含以下方面:总结文献蕴含的意义,并将这些与你的假设或者主要研究问题相联系(links to your hypothesis or main question.)。下面给出一个普遍适用的结构:

开头topic sentence,引入主题。BODY段有N个论点就写N+1段。BODY PARA 1引入所有文献,然后写一下KEY THEORY。然后之后的每个paragraph都写一个论点,如果给了超过一篇的文章就交替比较,比如,XXX说了什么whereas YYY说了什么。注意,因为是review,所以reporting verb前面要加具有导向意义的副词,比如rightfully什么的,来表示你支持他的观点与否。每段结尾的时候简单写几句evaluation。结尾的时候以转折性的语句讨论一下,“虽然XXX和YYY都说了什么,并且很有价值”等等的句子都写上。然后写他们都遗漏的地方,然后写你的看法。

至此,相信同学们对文献综述(Literature Review)应该有了一个浅显的了解。那么我们来开始说重点部分,那就是如何写文献综述。以下是一些写文献论述的步骤:

步骤一: 选择一个你要写的主题,专注并持续发展这个主题


步骤二: 搜索和搜集所有可能切合主题的学术信息

这包括学术文章、书籍、会议论文、博士论文和硕士论文等等,与您的学习领域相关的任何其他学术文章。这里是需要技巧的:瞄准主流。主流文献,如该领域的核心期刊、经典著作、专职部门的研究报告的观点和论述等,是做文献综述的“必修课”。而多数 大众媒体上的相关报道或言论,虽然多少有点价值,但时间精力所限,可以从简。怎样摸清该领域的主流呢?建议从以下几条途径入手:一是图书馆的学术期刊,找到一两篇“经典”的文章后“顺藤摸瓜”,留意它们的参考文献。质量较高的学术文章,通常是不会忽略该领域的主流、经典文献的。二是利用学校图书馆的 “期刊数据库检索”,能够查到一些较为经典的文献。

步骤三: 分析该领域主要文献的信息延伸网络,找出最有用的文章

使用思维图和图表来确定研究中的交叉点并概述重要的类别,选择对您审查最有用的材料。这里就需要同学们随时整理。如对文献进行分类,记录文献信息和藏书地点。同学们可以把每个课题按时间顺序整理好,同时,对于特别重要的文献,做一个读书笔记,摘录其中的重要观点和论述,模型整理好。导师提供的key author书很厚读不下去时,同学可以找作者相关的journal article,基本论点都是一点的。精简一些。然后用中文的逻辑过一遍,之后在笔记本上记下XXX讨论了了什么这样类似的句式。这样一步一个脚印,到真正开始写论文时,你就可以随时找到最有用的文章。

步骤四: 描述和总结每篇文章,提供与你研究有关的文章的基本信息

决定文献中讨论的2-3个重要概念(取决于文章的长度); 记录你本研究中所有与你研究主题相关的所有重要层面。例如在某个研究中,也许一些主要概念是X,Y和Z。请留意这些概念,然后写一个简短的总结关于该文章如何结合它们的。介绍研究的文献综述文章当中,这可能显得相对精简。在独立文献综述中,可能会有显著的多很多内容和概念。下面是我自己在写论文时,整理相关文献信息的一个技巧。我看journal先看abstract, 摘要可以初步判断一篇文献跟你的课题有没有关联,关联多大。重点看关键词,还有可以扫一眼研究方法,QUAN还是QUAL,什么方法收集数据。然后introduction,和theoretical background,研究的大背景分析,零散的知识点概念点都在里面,包括一些模型上的研究,这部分最好整理LITERATURE REVIEW。谁说过什么,研究发现了什么,又被谁谁证实了推翻了,摘出来然后自己标记上简单的描述,方面整理。然后以此找到更多的相关author和reference,像大树一样,枝枝叶叶的把你的知识点铺展开,自己梳理编制成一个面。最后conclusion,结论部分是一篇文章的最终研究成果,也是他的最终成果,研究数据啊搜集啊分析啊都是为了得出最后的结论,所以这个可以直接用到你的文献综述里面去。然后limitation 研究局限,可以用来critic review。

步骤五: 展示出文献中的这些概念如何与你在研究中发现的内容相关,或这些文献如何相互连结这些讨论过的概念或主题


步骤六: 辨识出文献之间的相互关系,并建立自己的想法且将其连结,这其实跟步骤五差不多,只是专注在现有文献与现行研究间或论文论点间的关系

你的假说、论点或导引概念就是贯穿所有的最重要主线,将所有文献连结起来并显现每一份文献的重要性。你的文献探讨不只涵盖自己研究主题的发表,也会包含你自己的想法跟贡献。跟随着以上步骤,你将能够有条理的讲述一件事情与其背景,并且展现你研究的重要性,而且让大家知道你有能力将文献之间的连结转化成一份完整且有条不紊的:要按照问题来组织文献综述。看过一些文献以后,我们有很强烈的愿望要把自己看到的东西都陈述出来,像“竹筒倒豆子”一样,洋洋洒洒,蔚为壮观。仿佛一定要向读者证明自己劳苦功高。我写过六七千字的文献综述,后来发觉真正有意义的不过数千字。文献综述就像是在文献的丛林中开辟道路,这条道路 本来就是要指向我们所要解决的问题,当然是直线距离最短、最省事,但是一路上风景颇多,迷恋风景的人便往往绕行于迤逦的丛林中,反面“乱花渐欲迷人眼”,“曲径通幽”不知所终了。因此,在做文献综述时,头脑时刻要清醒:我要解决什么问题,人家是怎么解决问题的,说的有没有道理,就行了。

此外,文献论述中,同学们还应确保文献综述使用正式和学术的写作风格。使用清晰简洁的语言,避免口语或口头禅。你应该始终以客观和尊重他人观点为目标,这不是使用情绪化语言和激烈地表达个人观点的地方。如果你认为某些东西是有问题的,用一些言辞比如“不一致的”,“某些地方缺乏”或“基于错误的假设”。 当介绍某人观点时,不要用“说”,而是用合适的动词,该动词能准确的反应这些观点,比如“认为”,“声称”,“宣称”。关于时态,说明主要观点和理论时用现在时,说明特定的研究和实验用过去时,例如:

Although Trescovick (2001) argues that attack is the best form of defence, Boycott (1969) claims that … 虽然 Trescovick (2001)认为进攻是最好的防守,但 Boycott (1969)宣称…

In a field study carried out amongst the homeless of Sydney, Warne (1999) found that …

最后,你要时刻记住,避免剽窃他人成果(avoid plagiarising your sources)。要总是对文献中的观点和你自己假设做区分,并确保始终参考的是你所指的文献。当阅读和做笔记时,可以用不同的颜色来区分你的观点和他人的观点。

一篇好的文献综述要有清晰的论点。因此需要用你在阅读文献时的重要笔记和评论来表达学术观点,请确保以下几点: 清晰、简短的介绍综述的大纲,包括所综述的主题、论点的安排顺序,并作出简要说明。在你的论点和阅读时没有覆盖到的论据之间要有清晰的联系,在每一部分结尾要有一个简短的总结。在阅读文献是你总会遇到和你的论文有分歧的观点,如果你忽视不同观点,你的论据将是不充分的。阅读完上述内容,你可以发现,Literature review其实是最简单的,只要你思路足够清晰,整理好了语言足够通顺,四五千字真的不是问题。

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金融学本科毕业论文是对金融本科学生金融相关知识和综合运用能力的一种检验,是对学生学习效果的总考核。论文选题是论文写作的第一步,选题是否恰当,直接关系到论文的质量好坏。但在实际实践中,有一些学生的英文背景可能不是很好,于是对写金融论文产生了一种恐惧心理,认为自己什么都看不懂,在毕业论文选题时往往不知如何着手,或者由于选题不当导致论文不能如期完成或质量低下,因此,首先探讨金融学本科毕业论文选题十分必要。当前,留学生们在选题上存在的主要问题便是“选择“大而泛“的宏观性课题,导致写作中难驾驭”。我曾经有一位利兹金融专业的学生,在选定题目时,定了”A Study on the financial risks and supervision“这样的题目, 结果因为范围太广,搜集不到有力的材料,导致写出来的东西缺乏深度,被supervisor建议narrow down the scale of topic并修改。在君道老师的帮助下,同学最终认识到自身题目存在的问题,了解到金融风险包括信用风险、流动性风险、利率风险、汇率风险、操作风险等等,并且每个具体问题都可以成为一篇文章。最后确定就其中一个问题写作。






确定好题目过后,我们便要开始我们dissertation 的撰写工作。关于写作,君道小编这里也有几点要求:






最后,在寻找资料过程中,使用但不要滥用图书馆电子资源。经济统计数据也可以从企业的annual report中获得。所以,凡是需要获得各种统计数据,都可以到各公司的官网查询。利用一些英文网站的搜索引擎,将关键字键入表单的框内,再单击旁边的”搜索”,即可查到所有新近有关该方面的动态信息。


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留学国外的同学,应该已经开始上课了吧O(∩_∩)O!各种Essay,report,Term paper,Assignment 也接踵而来,让留学异国他乡的同学们喘不过气,尤其是“抄袭率”这个坎,真是让同学们操碎了心。“抄袭”在国外大学被认为是一种剽窃行为(plagiarism ),在学术中是不能容忍的。国外大学都会使用抄袭检测系统,这里主要说明一下如何降低英国或美国大学常见使用的系统——Turnitin检测出来的相似度。




于是我们实验将刚刚的quotation改为citation. 首先我们改变句子的语序和主被动看看能否被检测出来,

这段话中我们改变了整体句子的语序,可见如果只是简单的换下先后位置是没有用的,依然能检测出来,但当我们改变句子语义并变换动词后“lead’后会发现Turnitin不会把他当作相似内容即使使用了相同的名词alliances and circumstances, 甚至名词位置顺序不变都不会再被计入相似度。


此外关于Turnitin查重系统的检测原理,还有一点需要说明,那便是Similarity Index。Similarity Index指的是论文最终的重复率,其中包含互联网來源、出版物、学生文稿。互联网来源指的是来源于互联网上的公开资料,国内、国外网站;出版物指的是来自各种期刊、图书等正式出版的资料;学生文稿指的是turnitin存储的该系统检测后的、被收录的论文、作业等。因为同一处文字以上三处都能检测到,所以三者相加的结果要超过相似度指标,三者可能存在交集,不是简单的叠加关系。



抄袭一般分两种,一种是不标reference,把别人的东西拿来自己用;另外一种是标上reference,但几乎不做修改。有的同学以为标上了reference,就可以简单的改改某句话单词,简单的换了语序,换了语态,这都是不可以的,都算抄袭.如果有些话是经典的,不可以轻易更改,比如定义,需要标上双引号,reference里要写出页码,但是也不可以频繁的直接引用, 其中一个理解的误区是,引用的文献原文,只要打双引号就行了。这样符合格式标准,但严重不符合老师的要求。因为学校一般会有一个容忍限度。如果有些同学就是引用了非常多原文,超过25%,有些人甚至到35%,这种情况我们判为“poor referencing”,会稍微减一点分,但没有大问题,前提是学生严格按照引用格式给出了citation和reference。如果纯粹的抄袭超过20%我们就会扣分了,到30%以上就会有挂科的危险了。不过有时候老师也会看你抄的好不好。大多数抄到这么多的同学论文本来也写得不好,给四十分或者挂掉都正常。但不排除个例写得特别好,写得特别认真,引用了非常多文献,Turnitin却显示相似度很高的,不用担心。只要你严格按照引用格式,而且一看就是自己做了很多research,查了很多文献写出来的。老师一看就知道。有些学生写2000字论文引用文献list有两页纸的都有,而且格式写得好就一定会被Turnitin检测到,没关系,老师会心算减去那些部分的。这样精致的文章就算25%-30%都不影响老师评分。但抄到35%以上尤其是2500字-3000字左右的小文章很少有可能给60。而且,Turnitin不仅会每句进行对比,还可以通过综合对比来进行判断,这样就加大了修改的难度。














1.正确使用直接引用:1.引用资料,认真整理所引用的资料是避免抄袭的最有效方法之一。Citation部分要遵循你的学校或机构要求的文档格式指南(如APA、MLA、Harvard、Chicago等),通常需要包括作者和出版日期等详细信息。(小编告诉大家个小技巧:整理引用资料不用自己一个字一个字打,直接找到Cite for Me网站(或是Words自带插件),输入文献信息和要求格式,就可以得到完整的Citation啦。2.直接引用,引用一个源文献时,一定选择合适且准确的表达方式。但是整句引用,或是40个单词以上的引语,是大多数高等院校都不提倡的。对我们平常写的essay来说,一篇论文篇幅不会特别长, 如果逐段引用的话,查重率嗖嗖嗖地就上去啦!所以,我们应该合理并有效地解释大部分材料。虽然这个过程需要很多时间,但是付出是值得的!3.引用自己的材料,如果你在研究论文中使用的一些材料是以前自己撰写的,那么对自己文献的引用要和正常引用一样。虽然说“肥水不流外人田”,但是如果不加批注引用以前材料的话,会被认为是自我剽窃。4.二次引用,如果你引用了别人文章中带引号“”的quote,你需要在参考文献部分添加页码信息,网页内容则需要添加段落号。会出现这种情况,一般是因为同学们为减少阅读文献的时间,会去直接参考一些著作的Review。如果没有看过Review里提到的原文,最好不要使用二次引用。因为二次引用更多是是结论性和建设性的内容。如果没看过原著直接引用,很大程度上会造成理解偏颇。而且,饱读诗书的导师很容易就能看出来,你究竟有没有读原著,对内容理解是不是有偏差。如果是初写论文者,也不建议使用二次引用哦。5.参考文献,最后,避免剽窃的最有效的方法之一,就是在研究论文的最后加上一份完整的参考文献。同样,该部分必须符合所要求的文档格式指南,大学和院系的官网上都会列出具体要求。





在改写句子后,如果你有来自自己的实践或专业经验,自己的观察,其他文献或出版资料。那你可以加上这些来增强论证!用“To illustrate”这样的短语来举例说明,或是“An example of this can be seen in….”其次是表达你的个人观点:你支持这个观点吗?,你反对这个观点吗?,为什么(连接下文讨论),这个观点有什么不足?或是对上下文进行注释,添加另一个批判性评论。这一点要根据专业和写作类型随机应变哦,不是广泛适用于所有论文的,例如case summary就不需要作者个人的观点和意向。








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新学期伊始,当同学们刚刚从要忍受孤独、忍受难吃的快餐、忍受不同学习模式的困境中缓解过来,一个绕不过去的坎儿又直直的立在了同学们面前,写论文-全英文的essay,report, presentation, exam等作业要求铺面而来。然而,国内的高中甚至大学,都没有专门针对论文写作的课程,很多学校的资源也有限,即使学生有心想参加一些好的科研项目,学校也爱莫能助。此外,国内外论文在写作方式、reference的使用、格式要求上又很不一样,很多学生就像无头苍蝇一样,吃不消,不知道如何开始。但为了完成学业,再困难,同学们也要硬着头皮上~~




论文交出去没几天,小慧就收到导师邮件,说她的论文大段内容和网上两篇论文内容一样,需要面谈,让她解释论文抄袭的问题。啊,抄袭?? 不是说保证原创吗?懵圈的小慧赶紧去联系这家代♥写机构,你们这种行为不是在坑客户吗,我要解决办法,要退款!!更坑的还在后面,她的愤怒换来的不是道歉,不是免费修改,更不是退款,而是拉黑: 代♥写机构就把小慧拉黑了……









另外客服的服务质量也可以反映出代♥写机构的优劣。一般来说代♥写机构的官网都会有客服的聊天窗口,在跟客服咨询的时候,同学们可以从对话中判断客服的专业性,因为专业的代♥写机构的客服对留学生的学业是非常了解的, 所以客户的问题是基本可以解答的。客服的在线时间是客服服务质量的另一方面。非常有信誉的网站不仅要有较多地可以联系到的方式,如果不能及时接线也是不行,在这一方面君道论文网平台却可以以官网,QQ,微信,微博,知乎等方式的交流平台,保证客服一天24小时在线,能够与客户及时沟通,解决客户的难题。

此外,还有两点需要注意:非常有信誉靠谱的代♥写机构都有好几种支付途径供大家选择,其中就包括bank account,paypal担保支付,支付宝,微信等,所以可以保障大家资金的安全。非常有信誉的论文网站均可提供论文代♥写、论文修改和论文发表一站式保密服务,客户可根据自己的需要选择服务的范围。

最后,再次和大家强调,如果找到一家靠谱的代♥写机构,那么论文的质量无须担忧的。君道论文网 是一家留学申请与论文作业辅导与代♥写的正规机构,在过去的10年时间里,帮助了高校留学生顺利申请了一大批英国名校,以及帮助留学生们完成了coursework, assignment, essay, assignment, research proposal, dissertation, presentation等各种文书的辅导与代♥写,得到成千上万的留学生的真正认可. 到2019为止,君道论文网实现了客服24小时在线一对一的客户沟通;君道论文拥有最专业的评估团队, 君道论文的turnitin系统免费检测帮助留学生朋友保证他们的论文原创性。总之,君道论文引领海外留学的风向标,打造最好的教育品牌,提供专业的代♥写服务,我们为自己的品牌代言,不负留学生的期待。而且君道论文网老师会不定期为大家提供一些经验型的帮助,希望各位同学能够在此过程中进行锻炼和学习,希望各位同学在选择论文机构时考虑君道论文,如果遇到学习上的困难,也可以和君道论文老师咨询。希望各位同学能够认真阅读。君道论文小编在这里为大家介绍这么多,希望各位同学能共勉,并且在此过程中成长和进步。

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牛津大学论文代写-Sensational Sensors




The power of electricity was tested to discover the different ways electricity can be impacted upon. Distance was specifically experimented upon to see if the amount of space effected electricity’s ability to sense electrical charges. The problem of the experiment was tested by creating a homemade electrical field detector to put to test against three electricity inducing objects such as a balloon, a comb, and a plastic cup. The objects were each placed at a starting distance of 3 inches in front of the detector and gradually moved back until the LED light went out.  At the end of the experiment what was surprisingly discovered was that the detector was not able to pick up on any charge presented from any of the objects resulting in a failure to be able to answer the problem of the experiment.

Background Research

The experiment in question explains the basic workings and capabilities of a simple electric field detector. Every circuit, transistor, wire, and resistor is arranged meticulously to create a large array of detectors to fit a specific purpose. The purpose is to expand knowledge and understanding of the natural forces, like electricity, that occur in nature. The research gathered from utilizing the electrical field detector reveals new scientific terminology and procedures. The research opens a new point of view into the true capabilities of electricity.

The experiment frequently refers to electric fields making a point to the term being a crucial part of the topic of the experiment. According to Thought Co. an electric field is, “regions of space around electrically charged particles or objects in which other electrically charged particles or objects would feel force” (Thought Co.). Electrical fields are produced when a positive charge shifts into a negative, and the direction the field moves towards is decided by which charge is active at the moment. When the electric field is repelled positive charges are in play. When a negative charge is in play the field will move towards the negative charge.

The main parts used to execute a detector’s ability to sense electric fields are semiconductors and circuit diagrams. Semiconductors are a special material fitted with the ability to partly import current. Semiconductor’s conductivity levels are moderate hence having the prefix semi-, meaning half or partly, added to the word semiconductor. There are two specific types of semiconductor used when constructing an electric field detector. P-type semiconductors are used to develop free electrons as minority charge carriers. Holes are the majority charge carriers. The exact opposite occurs within n-type semiconductors. N-type semiconductors use minority charge as free electrons and holes are the majority charge.

Charge carriers are the particles, such as free electrons and holes, that carry the electric current and charge from one place to another. A large amount of charge carriers are called majority charge carriers. Majority charge carriers handle most of the transportation of electrical charge or current. Minority charge carriers have a small charge. The very small amounts of electrical charge or current are left up to the minority charge carriers. Though on most occasions the majority charge carriers take care of the very small amounts as well.

A circuit diagram acts as the blueprints for the electrical circuitry used in the construction of the detector. The diagrams are generally represented using specific symbols to show the different circuits needed for each section. There are two types of circuit diagrams used called pictorial and schematic. Pictorial style uses basic symbols and shapes to easily represent circuit diagrams to less experienced viewers. The schematic style uses standard industry symbols to give a more technical presentation of the circuit graph to more experienced personnel.

The detector’s ability to sense and detect the nearly invisible forces of electricity is fascinating. There are factors to look for when studying the power of electricity. Though the factors are used to discover ways to harness electricity’s raw power. The reason for seeking out ways to use the data is to advance growth in society. The advancement of society could lead to further extraordinary discoveries in the world of science.

Biblical Application

In the Bible there are stories of God’s work on Earth and human life. One of His most celebrated works is the creation of the Earth. God created the terrain, flora, vegetation, and the changing seasons. In the experiment the power of electricity is tested to see how electricity is impacted. Electricity is a force of nature, as well as, a gift from God that contributes to many of today’s modern-day inventions. God’s gift of life can be seen in Nehemiah 9:6 which states, “You are the Lord, you alone. You have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them: and the host of heaven worships you.”