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Reflection Essay怎么写?

reflection essay

相信在外留学的留学生们对于英国Reflection Essay的写作一定都是不会陌生的,因为Reflection Essay, 也就是反思论文,考验的是我们的评判性思维能力,在国外大学的学习中是经常被要求写作的,他的写作内容是回顾之前的学习生活或者去回顾Reading or writing,去得到了什么样的教训或者经验。作用是用来检测你对自我过去表现的评价,会对你的自我批判性思维的提高有一定的帮助。那么如何才能写好Reflection Essay呢?

Reflective essay作业通常是关于你个人的观点和见解,与学术论文不同,它可以出现第一人称(如:“I”,“my”,“Our”等),也相对来说比较简单,同学们只需要清楚的表达自己的想法。文章的正文中除了总体的介绍和描述主题subject以外,还需要有Judgment和结论,这个部分通常是在文章的后半部分,但是也是非常重要的部分。在这个部分,需要说明你个人的观点和见解,这样会使你的文章更加独特性,并和其他文章有所不同。总之,在你写Reflection Essay之前,你必须明白你所反思的是什么样的问题,自己的观点是怎样的,否则你只会失去你的想法,或许更糟的是,你将会写不出任何有意义的东西。因此,在写作之前,最好整理一下自己的思路。

首先,你需要问自己几个问题,如:对于这个主题我的感觉是什么?它是怎样触动我的,是否是全部的内容?如果它没有触动我,是为什么呢?你需要注意到,问题都是关于个人的。这是因为一篇Reflection Essay是让你表达你的见解的。知道这些个人问题的答案可以帮助你写一篇Reflection Essay。但是你不要仅仅只在这三个问题上限制你自己。你应该要探索更多,然后说出你的意见。忽略事实的真相,专注于你自己的见解。其次,当你有了上述的个人问题的答案后,列出你的答案。然后,总结成一句话。这将是你的主要中心思想或中心论点,这将会引导你思考文章的其他部分。根据的论点,发现支持它的论据或观点。你可能会在一个段落中扩展或写更多关于论据的想法。每一段都将会是你论文的主体。你可以尝试在这些段落中陈述事实,就如你所观察到的,这样你的论据将会变得更有力。事实的充分参考对你的反思是一个很好的方式。随后,在决定了reflection essay的主体段落后,回到你的个人问题。这一次,问问你自己,并确认这些是不是想要写的:这就是我对这个话题真正的感受?这是它如何触动我,关于它的全部内容?它真的没有触动我,原因是哪些?这是一件你在写你的reflection essay后诚实的重申。同学们应该只提供您的真实感想,否则写下来的东西将会远离你反映的主题的真正目的。同时,写下你怎样和为什么会有这些见解。你需要保持一致,避免一个段落的想法与另一个段落的想法发生冲突。最后,简要地总结你的主要观点或论点。你可以用一个问题来结束,问问别人是否和你一样有相同的主题思想。你也可以给你的读者发出一个挑战,比如要求他们说说同一主题的想法并且问同样的问题。无论如何,最重要的是要记住一篇reflection essay通常是一个话题:可能会或可能不会影响你和他人的个人评价。总的来说,写一篇Reflection Essay对于提高你的批判性思维能力来说是一种很好的锻炼。

Reflection essay 主要分为三种,一种是对事件经历的反思,一种是对学习内容的反思。

对以往经验的反思 (Experiential Reflective Essay):

在一些热门的专业里,像商科,护理和教育,反思报告是连接理论和实践的重要部分。 当你被要求反思以往的经历时,不要仅仅只是描述它,而是要结合课程的idea或理论,深入的讨论评估它。你可以基于课程的理论和方法,用专业的技能去评估一个现象,从而提升自己的知识和技能。反思报告是给你一个机会去思考,反思你的选择和行动。 一般,你的反思写作需要包含以下问题:

  • Description – What happened?
  • Analysis – Why did it happen? What were you feeling? What theories might help explain what happened? Are there other perspectives that challenge your views?
  • Outcomes or Action – What did you learn? What would you do differently next time?

阅读后的反思 (reading Reflective Essay):

很多课程会要求同学们写阅读反思(比如reflecting on an educational theory you’ve read about within a unit),一方面的为了平衡评分机制,也是为了鼓励同学们在阅读后多进行思考。通常情况下,导师会提示同学们,什么是他们需要反思的。反思的目的是为了让同学们构建并发表自己的观点。一般,你的反思写作需要包含以下问题:

  • Description – What is the concept, idea or theory you are reflecting on?
  • Analysis – Are there aspects you found particularly interesting or challenging? Does it tie in with anything you have learned in the past? Has it changed the way you think, or affirmed something you already knew?
  • Outcomes or Action – What else might you need to find out? Do you have any questions? How might you incorporate or apply these ideas in the future, perhaps in your professional life?

讨论完reflective essay写作的准备工作和Reflective essay 的分类,这里君道论文的老师重点强调一下reflective essay的写作步骤:

1.研究topic以及Essay的随附要求。

导师在布置essay作业是,一般都会有附加的要求,这些要求一般都会包含较为详细的信息,是主要考察点与评判点。而且,导师不是是随便出一个题目让你写的,可能是课堂上讲到的内容或者观点的延伸,也可能是对某一项能力的锻炼,通过对这些信息的读取,可以与课堂内容相互印证,找到契合点,从而写出更加符合要求的essay。

2.分析essay题目内容。

细度这个题目,研究题目具体是哪个方向的内容。如果题目是一个判断,如:X(负向)影响了Y,请critically review这个陈述。这是一个相关关系分析,首先应该弄清楚X有没有影响到Y; 如果影响/没影响到Y,为什么会产生这个现象。关于又需要分析,什么叫X影响到Y,如何来定义与衡量这个影响。涉及到因果关系,要真正确定因果是很难的。我们可以从相关可能性上分析。X的特性是什么,Y的特性是什么,什么因素会影响Y,X有没有这个因素。

3.搜集材料。

如果导师给出了材料,那正好,通过材料基本能够提炼出观点与关键词,再去找资料完善文章内容就可以了。如果导师没有给资料,则建议先在Google上搜索,对X、Y两个对象进行深入了解,看正面影响、负面影响分别是什么,哪些是可以写到essay中的。然后再用关键词去数据库搜索资料。不建议直接使用数据库,如果对对象不太了解,很容易被数据库中大量的资料迷惑,不知道怎么下笔。

4.构建outline。

写作前一定要把写作思路构建成outline,然后从上往下推敲,看结构与逻辑是否合适,看论据是否充足,能否说服自己。如果连自己都不能说服,肯定需要修改。确定outline以后,就可以正式写作了。写作过程应该严格按照outline,不要随便改结构,也不要想到一个论点感觉挺好就加进去,这样很容易导致逻辑混乱,影响论文质量。中国留学生在essay时还容易出现词不达意,句子冗长等毛病,如果essay比较重要,交上去之前可以拜托君道论文帮忙修改。这里小编为大家提供一个常用的结构(outline),此结构是基于Gibbs (1988) 的Reflection Model 。(因为是英文写作,所以下文我就直接用英语来说明写作结构)具体如下:

Description (descriptive)

Describe in detail the event you are reflecting on: Where you were, who else was there, why you were there, what you were doing, what other people were doing, what the context of the event was, what happened, what your part in this was, what parts the other people played, what the result was.

For example: I visited an employment tribunal services in Leeds, with one of my course colleagues. We were visiting the tribunal so we could experience an employment hearing and gain an understanding what kinds of things were taken to a tribunal, the format and outcomes.

The hearing we got to sit in on was a case of unfair dismissal; we watched the whole process from the judge having some deliberation over whether or not the case should be heard right through to the decision at the end.

We listened to the respondent’s evidence first; in this case it was the company, followed by a cross examination from the judge and her panel and the solicitor of the claimant. Secondly we heard the claimants evidence on the situation then watched him been cross examined.

This was then followed by the solicitor of the claimant and the barrister of the respondent making submission each to the judge upon which she would review everything with her panel and make a decision.

The outcome was decided; it was a case for unfair dismissal as the conduct of the  claimant did not account to gross misconduct in relation to the company’s policies.

Feelings (descriptive)

Why this event was important and how you felt prior to the experience;How you felt during the experience and what your thoughts were at the time What were your reactions to the experience;How you felt about the outcome of the experience What you think now. For example: 篇幅问题,不再赘述,可以联系君道论文的老师,获取更详细的指导。

Evaluation (descriptive)

Try to evaluate or make a judgement about what has happened. Consider the following: What was good about the experience, what was bad or did not go so well. Give specific examples. Mention the strategies that were used to deal with challenging situations. How the experience ended? Was the experience complete or incomplete?

举个例子:Overall the experience as a whole was a very good one. My understanding of tribunals, unfair dismissal and rewards and compensation was significantly increased. Also the discussions with my colleague during the breaks and afterwards helped me by developing what we had experienced but also it identified how differently we both interpreted the same information which also encouraged discussions around who was correct.

I think it helped that we had forward planned and knew what cases were been held on the day and knew exactly what time we needed to be there and had a map of the location.

However, the experience also has some drawbacks for example, I wanted to ask  questions and clarify and research further some of the things that were brought up in the hearing, but because of the situation I couldn’t which has caused some confusion. I guess this trait that I have adopted here is suggesting according to Honey and Mumford I was a theorist, I wanted to take what I had learnt or heard and find out more, put it in to context and test to see if the information was right. Whereas usually I tent to take a more activist approach when learning new things, learning by doing (Honey and Mumford, 1982)

Some of the terminology and expressions that were used in the hearing I was not familiar with which to some extent hindered my learning experience, but over time I will hopefully come more familiar with the language as I widen my exposure through exposing myself to the legal scenarios.

This was the first time I have experienced a tribunal and learning in this environment therefore more exposure may be necessary.

Analysis (analytical)

What sense can you make out of the experience? Look back at things that went well – explain why they went well (causes). What they led to (consequences). How could it have been avoided? Look back at things that went badly – explain why they went badly (causes). What they led to (consequences). How could it have been improved? In what way you contributed to this experience. Was it useful for you? In what way others contributed to this experience. What were their reactions?

Conclusion (descriptive/evaluative)

What you learnt from the experience: about yourself (positive/negative aspects);your knowledge and skills (strengths / weaknesses) what could have been done differently.

Action plan (descriptive)

What you need to improve if you were asked to do this experience again: knowledge, ability, skills, behaviour How are you going to do it? Provide specific actions.

以上便是一篇reflective essay的结构框架。尽管在分类上把Reflection Essay单独归为一种,但实际写作上和普通essay并没太大差别。总的来讲,最关键的就是明确观点,文章的观点是什么,应该一目了然。虽然在写作上还有“先论述,最后提出观点”的写法,但在这里还是推荐先亮出观点,再论述的形式写作。另外,观点一定要明确,要写清楚支持哪个观点,不支持哪个观点,不能含糊不清。比如就不能写某观点在当前情况下是对的,相对观点再

另一种情况下也是对的,让人看不明白到底支持哪一种观点。此外,最重要的就是论述应该有理有据。我的观点是什么,不是我想当然是这样,是有文献支持的、是大众认同的、是调查得到的才有说服力。因此,文中的每一个论文都应该有对应的论据支持,如果引用文献中的原话,记得要注明出处。其次,要注意句子和句子之间的内在逻辑,在一篇文章里,写文章时应该每一句话都是在每个步骤相互贯连的,也可能用这句话而是服务于某个目的的。说一个现象,就得出了一个结论,这是不对的做法。用你精明的双眼不要放过你逻辑上的一点点不合理的地方,不要对你的文章有敷衍的情绪,要对每个细节负责,一定要把每件事情都说清楚啊!能要拥有这样的一个好习惯,这样的习惯可以证明你是一个头脑清晰,负责任的人。最后,同学们的反思要Provide a bigger picture out of your personal story。你这篇essay,不要局限于你自己的故事,讲完就结束,要想让这个essay更有含金量,特别重要的不光就事论事还要一定要升华主旨,写一件事,你自然会得出一些道理,让人们站在更高的角度来理解把这些道理升,而是有了一种代表性,有一种由个体影射整个社会的意义,其实也要靠你自己的三寸不烂之舌。

以上就是关于Reflection  Essay写作的讲解,同学们在写作Reflection  Essay的时候可以按照这样的写作思路去写,或许就可以写出一篇好的Reflection  Essay。

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怎样高效的完成一篇文献综述?

文献综述

一篇论文有时少不了要写Literature Review,但对于刚刚接触国外大学论文的同学来说,从大量资料中找到需要的资料并有逻辑的组织这些材料还是有些难度的。这篇文章,君道论文的老师就从概念,写作方法等方面指导学生如何高效的完成一篇文献综述(literature review)。

首先,我们先来说一下文献综述的涵义。通过辅导许多留学生作业,君道论文老师发现,许多同学有时候会混淆“文献综述(Literature Review)” 和“背景描述(Background Description)”的概念。背景描述(Background Description)是需要我们了解该问题产生的背景和来龙去脉,如“英国半导体产业的发展历程”、“国外政府发展半导体产业的政策和问题”等等,这些内容属于“背景描述”,关注的是现实层面问题,严格讲不是“文献综述”。“文献综述”是对学术观点和理论方法的整理。是评论性的(Review就是“评论”的意思),因此要带着作者本人批判的眼光(critical thinking)来归纳和评论文献,而不仅仅是相关领域学术研究的“堆砌”。如下图所示:

文献综述的基本认识

根据 La Trobe 大学的学者 Caulley (1992)的论述,文献综述应该:

1.比较和对比不同作者对同一个问题的看法

2.将得出相似结论的作者分组

3.方法论层面进行评论

4.注意文章作者有不同观点的地方

5.突出具有示范性的研究

6.突出研究中的缺陷或空白

7.说明前人的研究如何与你的研究相关联

8.说明你的研究如何与所看文献的相关联(不准确)

9.总结文献内容

Caulley (1992)在他的文章中同时也提到,文献综述的最终目的是定义并将正在研究的问题限制在一个合理的范围,避免没有必要的重复工作,并将你的研究放于历史的视角,评估有前景的研究方法(找到我们能用的好的方法,或者给我们提供思路),然后将你的发现与之前的知识联系起来,指导进一步的研究。总之,好的文献综述对所写内容至关重要,会确定争论所在的地方,提出问题并确定需进一步研究的领域。

通过上述论文,我们可以了解:文献综述评论的主线,要按照问题展开,也就是说,别的学者是如何看待和解决你提出的 问题的,他们的方法和理论是否有什么缺陷?要是别的学者已经很完美地解决了你提出的问题,那就没有重复研究的必要了。换句话说,你要明白你的文献综述不应简单的以一系列总结的形式描述他人已发表的文章,而应该采用批判讨论的形式,展现出深刻见解,意识到不同的论点、理论和方法。文献综述应是相关文献的综合与分析,并时刻与你自己的目的和理由相连。这与上述文献综述的写作目的相一致。

清楚了文献综述的涵义和目的,现来说说怎么做文献综述。虽说,尽可能广泛地收集资料是负责任的研究态度,但如果缺乏标准,就极易将人引入文献的泥沼。

首先,我们要了解文献综述的结构(The structure of the literature review)文献综述的总体结构主要取决于你的论文或研究领域。所以,你要做的是分类并比较和对比某一领域不同作者不同的观点等等。综述的结构应该由主题所在领域,有争议的问题或具有不同方法和理论的问题决定。在每个不同的部分,同学们应该讨论不同文献的观点,并且要与自己的研究目标相关联。这时,连接词(linking words)很重要。当你把持相似观点的作者放在一起时,你可使用下面这些单词或短语,类似地,除了…之外,也,同样 。更重要的是,如果有不同意见的观点,你需要利用连接词清楚的表明这些分歧,例如:however, on the other hand, conversely, nevertheless。在综诉的结尾,你需要包含以下方面:总结文献蕴含的意义,并将这些与你的假设或者主要研究问题相联系(links to your hypothesis or main question.)。下面给出一个普遍适用的结构:

开头topic sentence,引入主题。BODY段有N个论点就写N+1段。BODY PARA 1引入所有文献,然后写一下KEY THEORY。然后之后的每个paragraph都写一个论点,如果给了超过一篇的文章就交替比较,比如,XXX说了什么whereas YYY说了什么。注意,因为是review,所以reporting verb前面要加具有导向意义的副词,比如rightfully什么的,来表示你支持他的观点与否。每段结尾的时候简单写几句evaluation。结尾的时候以转折性的语句讨论一下,“虽然XXX和YYY都说了什么,并且很有价值”等等的句子都写上。然后写他们都遗漏的地方,然后写你的看法。

至此,相信同学们对文献综述(Literature Review)应该有了一个浅显的了解。那么我们来开始说重点部分,那就是如何写文献综述。以下是一些写文献论述的步骤:

步骤一: 选择一个你要写的主题,专注并持续发展这个主题

选一个你熟悉并且对分析非常感兴趣的主题、一个你目标读者和研究人员会感兴趣和受用的主题或以及目前在该领域已经建立相当完善的议题,并且已经有足够的研究文献量进行评估。此外,当你你的选题,你才能知道你需要阅读什么。你将会有一个书单或者指向有用的已发表的文献的范围,请务必使用这些辅助资源。在此基础上,对于具体的论文或者其他特定的一些材料,更多的需要自己选择决定。因此,尝试和确定你的研究的范围很重要。(回答两个问题)你的目的到底是什么,你需要寻找的是什么?在你的综述中,你是否正在研究理论、方法论、政策、定量研究或者其他什么问题?在开始阅读文献之前,可先编写一个清单,清单上记下主要范围和涉及的问题,然后带着这个目的去读,去找寻相关资料和回答那些问题。除非遇到某件特别重要的事情,则坚持使用这个清单,因为在互联网时代很容易分散注意力。

步骤二: 搜索和搜集所有可能切合主题的学术信息

这包括学术文章、书籍、会议论文、博士论文和硕士论文等等,与您的学习领域相关的任何其他学术文章。这里是需要技巧的:瞄准主流。主流文献,如该领域的核心期刊、经典著作、专职部门的研究报告的观点和论述等,是做文献综述的“必修课”。而多数 大众媒体上的相关报道或言论,虽然多少有点价值,但时间精力所限,可以从简。怎样摸清该领域的主流呢?建议从以下几条途径入手:一是图书馆的学术期刊,找到一两篇“经典”的文章后“顺藤摸瓜”,留意它们的参考文献。质量较高的学术文章,通常是不会忽略该领域的主流、经典文献的。二是利用学校图书馆的 “期刊数据库检索”,能够查到一些较为经典的文献。

步骤三: 分析该领域主要文献的信息延伸网络,找出最有用的文章

使用思维图和图表来确定研究中的交叉点并概述重要的类别,选择对您审查最有用的材料。这里就需要同学们随时整理。如对文献进行分类,记录文献信息和藏书地点。同学们可以把每个课题按时间顺序整理好,同时,对于特别重要的文献,做一个读书笔记,摘录其中的重要观点和论述,模型整理好。导师提供的key author书很厚读不下去时,同学可以找作者相关的journal article,基本论点都是一点的。精简一些。然后用中文的逻辑过一遍,之后在笔记本上记下XXX讨论了了什么这样类似的句式。这样一步一个脚印,到真正开始写论文时,你就可以随时找到最有用的文章。

步骤四: 描述和总结每篇文章,提供与你研究有关的文章的基本信息

决定文献中讨论的2-3个重要概念(取决于文章的长度); 记录你本研究中所有与你研究主题相关的所有重要层面。例如在某个研究中,也许一些主要概念是X,Y和Z。请留意这些概念,然后写一个简短的总结关于该文章如何结合它们的。介绍研究的文献综述文章当中,这可能显得相对精简。在独立文献综述中,可能会有显著的多很多内容和概念。下面是我自己在写论文时,整理相关文献信息的一个技巧。我看journal先看abstract, 摘要可以初步判断一篇文献跟你的课题有没有关联,关联多大。重点看关键词,还有可以扫一眼研究方法,QUAN还是QUAL,什么方法收集数据。然后introduction,和theoretical background,研究的大背景分析,零散的知识点概念点都在里面,包括一些模型上的研究,这部分最好整理LITERATURE REVIEW。谁说过什么,研究发现了什么,又被谁谁证实了推翻了,摘出来然后自己标记上简单的描述,方面整理。然后以此找到更多的相关author和reference,像大树一样,枝枝叶叶的把你的知识点铺展开,自己梳理编制成一个面。最后conclusion,结论部分是一篇文章的最终研究成果,也是他的最终成果,研究数据啊搜集啊分析啊都是为了得出最后的结论,所以这个可以直接用到你的文献综述里面去。然后limitation 研究局限,可以用来critic review。

步骤五: 展示出文献中的这些概念如何与你在研究中发现的内容相关,或这些文献如何相互连结这些讨论过的概念或主题

在评论一篇文章的文献中,这个内容可能包含结果的总结或与自已研究相呼应的先前研究的方法。至于独立的文献探讨,这里则可能意味着强调每篇文献中的概念,且表现出它们如何强化假说或显现出一种模式。讨论在先前研究中没有被提到的议题。将这些缺少你提到的内容的研究包含进文献探讨里面是很重要的,而且其中直接支持你研究发现的理论和结论将会是很宝贵的内容。

步骤六: 辨识出文献之间的相互关系,并建立自己的想法且将其连结,这其实跟步骤五差不多,只是专注在现有文献与现行研究间或论文论点间的关系

你的假说、论点或导引概念就是贯穿所有的最重要主线,将所有文献连结起来并显现每一份文献的重要性。你的文献探讨不只涵盖自己研究主题的发表,也会包含你自己的想法跟贡献。跟随着以上步骤,你将能够有条理的讲述一件事情与其背景,并且展现你研究的重要性,而且让大家知道你有能力将文献之间的连结转化成一份完整且有条不紊的:要按照问题来组织文献综述。看过一些文献以后,我们有很强烈的愿望要把自己看到的东西都陈述出来,像“竹筒倒豆子”一样,洋洋洒洒,蔚为壮观。仿佛一定要向读者证明自己劳苦功高。我写过六七千字的文献综述,后来发觉真正有意义的不过数千字。文献综述就像是在文献的丛林中开辟道路,这条道路 本来就是要指向我们所要解决的问题,当然是直线距离最短、最省事,但是一路上风景颇多,迷恋风景的人便往往绕行于迤逦的丛林中,反面“乱花渐欲迷人眼”,“曲径通幽”不知所终了。因此,在做文献综述时,头脑时刻要清醒:我要解决什么问题,人家是怎么解决问题的,说的有没有道理,就行了。

此外,文献论述中,同学们还应确保文献综述使用正式和学术的写作风格。使用清晰简洁的语言,避免口语或口头禅。你应该始终以客观和尊重他人观点为目标,这不是使用情绪化语言和激烈地表达个人观点的地方。如果你认为某些东西是有问题的,用一些言辞比如“不一致的”,“某些地方缺乏”或“基于错误的假设”。 当介绍某人观点时,不要用“说”,而是用合适的动词,该动词能准确的反应这些观点,比如“认为”,“声称”,“宣称”。关于时态,说明主要观点和理论时用现在时,说明特定的研究和实验用过去时,例如:

Although Trescovick (2001) argues that attack is the best form of defence, Boycott (1969) claims that … 虽然 Trescovick (2001)认为进攻是最好的防守,但 Boycott (1969)宣称…

In a field study carried out amongst the homeless of Sydney, Warne (1999) found that …

最后,你要时刻记住,避免剽窃他人成果(avoid plagiarising your sources)。要总是对文献中的观点和你自己假设做区分,并确保始终参考的是你所指的文献。当阅读和做笔记时,可以用不同的颜色来区分你的观点和他人的观点。

一篇好的文献综述要有清晰的论点。因此需要用你在阅读文献时的重要笔记和评论来表达学术观点,请确保以下几点: 清晰、简短的介绍综述的大纲,包括所综述的主题、论点的安排顺序,并作出简要说明。在你的论点和阅读时没有覆盖到的论据之间要有清晰的联系,在每一部分结尾要有一个简短的总结。在阅读文献是你总会遇到和你的论文有分歧的观点,如果你忽视不同观点,你的论据将是不充分的。阅读完上述内容,你可以发现,Literature review其实是最简单的,只要你思路足够清晰,整理好了语言足够通顺,四五千字真的不是问题。

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英国金融专业毕业论文怎么写?

英国金融论文

近几年,随着经济生活中金融活动的日益增强,金融学科也受到了广泛的重视,越来越多的留学生投入到金融专业的学习大军中。其中以留英学习居多,这主要由于英国有着优秀的教育、良好的经济环境,再加上国际金融中心的地位使得英国的商学院,特别是金融专业誉满全球,为此有很多的留学生选择去英国进修。英国本科金融专业分为不同的属系,有些是经济系,有些是管理或者商科系,这些科目会有些出入,但是都相差不大。但对于留学生们来说,无论是何种体系,金融类论文都给留学生们带来不少困扰,尤其是毕业大论文。因此,这里君道论文小编就和大家分享一些技巧,教你轻松应对金融类论文。

金融学本科毕业论文是对金融本科学生金融相关知识和综合运用能力的一种检验,是对学生学习效果的总考核。论文选题是论文写作的第一步,选题是否恰当,直接关系到论文的质量好坏。但在实际实践中,有一些学生的英文背景可能不是很好,于是对写金融论文产生了一种恐惧心理,认为自己什么都看不懂,在毕业论文选题时往往不知如何着手,或者由于选题不当导致论文不能如期完成或质量低下,因此,首先探讨金融学本科毕业论文选题十分必要。当前,留学生们在选题上存在的主要问题便是“选择“大而泛“的宏观性课题,导致写作中难驾驭”。我曾经有一位利兹金融专业的学生,在选定题目时,定了”A Study on the financial risks and supervision“这样的题目, 结果因为范围太广,搜集不到有力的材料,导致写出来的东西缺乏深度,被supervisor建议narrow down the scale of topic并修改。在君道老师的帮助下,同学最终认识到自身题目存在的问题,了解到金融风险包括信用风险、流动性风险、利率风险、汇率风险、操作风险等等,并且每个具体问题都可以成为一篇文章。最后确定就其中一个问题写作。

因此,我们在确定金融专业论文选题时,一定要遵循一定的原则,首先便是大小适中原则。同学们所选题目“宜小不宜大,宜专不应泛”,可小题大做,勿大题小做。金融专业学生要根据自己的科研能力,结合当前科技和经济发展,选择大小适中,难易适中的题目。一个题目太小了则不利于展开理论上的探讨。发挥的空间很小,那么取得突破性成果也就十分困难。比如,”储蓄柜台客户填表制度的废除”就是一个十分具体的小题目。如果做一篇2-3千字的小型论文则可以将这种制度上的变革目的和效果阐释清楚,但是拿它来做一篇1万字左右的毕业论文就显得小题大做了。这种具体业务做法上的些许改变其意义一般也不是太大的。反过来,一个题目太大会面面俱到,不着边际,什么问题都谈到,什么问题也说不清楚,难以抓住重点展开论述,将论题说深说透。比如,”入世后,中资银行如何迎接外资银行挑战”,这个题目要做好大概可以写一本厚厚的专著。类似的题目诸如”国有商业银行如何发展中间业务””也论金融风险的产生与防范”等等,它们的共同特点是可以在同一个题目下探讨多方面的问题。这样,撰写论文时就无法落笔,往往是什么都涉及到一点儿,但什么都不深入、谈不透。一个适当的题目应当是着眼点十分清楚的。某个方面的问题可能有不同的见解,有一些因素使得它不能一下子得出结论,需要做一些分析才能看出结果;但是,假如站在不同的角度,得出的结论也不同。这种问题很适合于一篇万余字的毕业论文规模,也是学生尝试着用自己的知识分析问题、解决问题的好题目。

其次,选题最好能建立在平日比较注意探索的问题的基础上。写论文主要是反映学生对问题的思考,所以假如学生对问题了解甚少或几乎没有什么感想,那么,要挖空心思讨论一个问题就难了,因为他将不知道到底应该持有什么样的见解才是对的。如果从自己的专长和兴趣入手确定选题,学生会在平时的学习中或实践中有深切的感受,不断的专业学习和一贯的信息收集使其准备了厚实的理论基础。那么,剩下来的事就只是将能够支持其感想的一些理论和事实数据找出来加以整理,用以支持和表达他的论点。因此,学生很容易便能够进行深入研究,提高升华的认识,较容易写得深入、写出创新点。俗话说:”有话则长,无话则短”,一篇万余字的论文没有一点儿自己的感受是很难写成的,除非做裁缝,将他人的文章相互拼凑在一起完事。总之,兴趣是最好的老师,感兴趣才会深入思考,才能深入钻研下去,才能形成自己一定的独到见解,可望成为一篇较高质量的论文。

也有这样一种获得自己观点的案头方法,即先大量阅读某个方面的学术文章,看别人在这方面有些什么见解,一边看一边将自己的感想记录下来,经过一定的阅读就会在这方面积累相当多的知识,最后,通过前人文献资料的掌握,可以了解所选题目应涉及的内容、历史和现状,这样很容易便能够找到选题的新视角,而自己的见解也可能慢慢形成。有时候学生可能对一些观点有所怀疑,不妨将自己的怀疑提出来,用实事去分析它们是否合理,通过对不同的观点所依据的条件的对比分析,就可以找到一些依据,证明自己的怀疑是否成立,这本身就是一种论证过程,写出来也许就是一篇好文章,所谓”大胆假设,小心求证”应该指此。

此外,选题还应遵守创新原则,避免选择已经完全得到解决的常识性问题;鼓励选择同企业或者行业的建设与发展密切相关的现实问题,鼓励解决实际问题。经济学方面的课题经常是很具有时代性的,一个课题会随着经济形势的变化而变化。比如,”中国证券市场呼唤开放式基金”,这原是一个不错的课题,但是,目前显然已是一个过了时的课题,因为中国证券市场已经推出了开放式基金,对于”是否需要”这类讨论而言,暂时已不具有特别的意义。但是,假如换成”开放式基金运作效果分析”仍不失为一个可以研究的课题。这个例子意味着在经济学方面做文章选题要注意与时俱进。

最后,选题应符合专业培养目标和教学要求,以所学专业课的内容为主,不应脱离专业范围,要有一定的综合性,具有一定的深度和广度。金融学专业的学生,毕业论文必须在专业有关的方向上选取,可以做交叉性的课题,但是,完全不相关的课题则不符合要求,一定要注意避免。总之,同学们选题,一定注意选题难度、大小要适中,以在规定时间内,经努力可完成为宜。

确定好题目过后,我们便要开始我们dissertation 的撰写工作。关于写作,君道小编这里也有几点要求:

同学们首先一定要注意写作方法:写文章有了题目接下来就要拟定提纲,一份合理的提纲是半篇成功的文章。提纲不严谨,论文难以严谨。经常写文章的人对此会有深刻的体会。当然,提纲可简可繁,这就看撰稿者的功底了。如果并不经常撰稿,那么最好提纲拟得详细一些,最好该在什么地方使用什么材料都布置好,这样,具体写起来就不会开无轨电车或感到没东西好写。

数据资料应当按年份整理成表格,这样,能够说明动态的发展趋势。因为缺乏原来的基础做比较,零星的数据资料往往不能单独说明问题。

由于有许多方面的因素可以影响数据的变化,所以,对于已有的数据一般应该做一些分析,并剔除无关的因素,使数据更准确地说明问题。

凡是采用某一理论模型的,不要忘记它的前提条件。改变了前提条件,模型就会无法成立。而事实上我们讨论的应用性课题往往未必能满足这些前提条件,所以,简单套用往往会出问题。学生可以在阐述观点时运用模型思想,也可以对某一理论模型的前提条件做一些检验和讨论,看看实际情况中这些前提是否已经得到了满足,等等。

其次,毕业设计(论文)主要内容包括:目录、中文内容摘要、关键词、正文、参考文献;专业所需的数据以及计算机程序清单等相关材料。所引用的外文参考文献资料,必须注明引用教材(或著作、期刊等)的书名(或著作、期刊名)、作者、出版单位、时间,引用期刊的还必须注明文章名;引用其他参考材料也应注明资料来源。

最后,在寻找资料过程中,使用但不要滥用图书馆电子资源。经济统计数据也可以从企业的annual report中获得。所以,凡是需要获得各种统计数据,都可以到各公司的官网查询。利用一些英文网站的搜索引擎,将关键字键入表单的框内,再单击旁边的”搜索”,即可查到所有新近有关该方面的动态信息。

总之,毕业论文的写作有一定的规模和要求,应早做准备,不可等闲视之。确保论文的内容观点新颖、明确,材料翔实、有力,结构完整、谨严,语言通顺。切记:无论怎样的观点,要用客观的态度讨论,要符合逻辑,能够自圆其说。

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论文查重太高怎么办?如何快速降低论文抄袭率?

降低论文查重

留学国外的同学,应该已经开始上课了吧O(∩_∩)O!各种Essay,report,Term paper,Assignment 也接踵而来,让留学异国他乡的同学们喘不过气,尤其是“抄袭率”这个坎,真是让同学们操碎了心。“抄袭”在国外大学被认为是一种剽窃行为(plagiarism ),在学术中是不能容忍的。国外大学都会使用抄袭检测系统,这里主要说明一下如何降低英国或美国大学常见使用的系统——Turnitin检测出来的相似度。

想要有效降低论文抄袭率,我们首先要了解Turnitin查重系统的检测原理是什么?同学们通过上传自己的文稿与Turnitin的云端数据库和网页进行相似度的比对,随后在一个比较快的时间内得到一个相似性评分,与此同时在“原创性报告”上面生成段落和句字相似性评分,并注明抄袭来源。Turnitin检测不止是单独检测每句话,前后句段落的改动也在其检测范围。就是把一句话分到两段,也能检测出来!

以某论文里的一处quotation为例,并佐以Turnitin的分析:这段quotation已被Turnitin检测到,然后Turnitin给出的理由是(如下图):

我们可以发现Turnitin是有理有据的,然后Turnitin提供了与这段类似的其他essay:

于是我们实验将刚刚的quotation改为citation. 首先我们改变句子的语序和主被动看看能否被检测出来,

这段话中我们改变了整体句子的语序,可见如果只是简单的换下先后位置是没有用的,依然能检测出来,但当我们改变句子语义并变换动词后“lead’后会发现Turnitin不会把他当作相似内容即使使用了相同的名词alliances and circumstances, 甚至名词位置顺序不变都不会再被计入相似度。

我们可以发现在改变了单词顺序的情况下Turnitin已经不再把这段话算作相似段落了。因此,我们可以发现,Turnitin检测相似度的原理显然不同于所谓的字数重合检测原理,Turnitin检测的是在语法上的逻辑,这与单词是否重复是没有太大关系的,所以只要你使用了不同的逻辑来表达相同的话就算你重复的单词再多也是不会被检测出来的。

此外关于Turnitin查重系统的检测原理,还有一点需要说明,那便是Similarity Index。Similarity Index指的是论文最终的重复率,其中包含互联网來源、出版物、学生文稿。互联网来源指的是来源于互联网上的公开资料,国内、国外网站;出版物指的是来自各种期刊、图书等正式出版的资料;学生文稿指的是turnitin存储的该系统检测后的、被收录的论文、作业等。因为同一处文字以上三处都能检测到,所以三者相加的结果要超过相似度指标,三者可能存在交集,不是简单的叠加关系。

文章到这里,想必同学们对Turnitin系统已经有了一定的了解了吧。

那么我们再来说一下抄袭。

抄袭一般分两种,一种是不标reference,把别人的东西拿来自己用;另外一种是标上reference,但几乎不做修改。有的同学以为标上了reference,就可以简单的改改某句话单词,简单的换了语序,换了语态,这都是不可以的,都算抄袭.如果有些话是经典的,不可以轻易更改,比如定义,需要标上双引号,reference里要写出页码,但是也不可以频繁的直接引用, 其中一个理解的误区是,引用的文献原文,只要打双引号就行了。这样符合格式标准,但严重不符合老师的要求。因为学校一般会有一个容忍限度。如果有些同学就是引用了非常多原文,超过25%,有些人甚至到35%,这种情况我们判为“poor referencing”,会稍微减一点分,但没有大问题,前提是学生严格按照引用格式给出了citation和reference。如果纯粹的抄袭超过20%我们就会扣分了,到30%以上就会有挂科的危险了。不过有时候老师也会看你抄的好不好。大多数抄到这么多的同学论文本来也写得不好,给四十分或者挂掉都正常。但不排除个例写得特别好,写得特别认真,引用了非常多文献,Turnitin却显示相似度很高的,不用担心。只要你严格按照引用格式,而且一看就是自己做了很多research,查了很多文献写出来的。老师一看就知道。有些学生写2000字论文引用文献list有两页纸的都有,而且格式写得好就一定会被Turnitin检测到,没关系,老师会心算减去那些部分的。这样精致的文章就算25%-30%都不影响老师评分。但抄到35%以上尤其是2500字-3000字左右的小文章很少有可能给60。而且,Turnitin不仅会每句进行对比,还可以通过综合对比来进行判断,这样就加大了修改的难度。

当然,也许你的学长等也会给你一些“妙招”来避免抄袭。但是其实很多“招数”是无效的哦,比如下面的七个误区:

1、将大段落分割成小段落

这是无效的办法,是可以被检测出来的。

2、抄袭没在数据库中的书籍

虽然书籍不在数据库中,但是书籍中经典部分很可能已经被人引用而进入数据库,所以,这个办法也容易躺枪。

3、抽取不同文章的章节拼接成新文章

很多检测是以句子为最小单位的,这样的做法对抄袭检测的结果影响几乎为零。

4、在抄袭句子的后面标注参考文献

检测专用术语中有两种库:一种是抄袭库,一种是引用库。断句的时候,当发现一句话,来自于抄袭库,他则算是抄袭,如果发现是引用库的时候,则算引用。他只以两个库为标准,所以建议不要过度引用。

5、打乱句子的顺序.现在的检测一般都采用模糊算法,只要关键词不替换,即使打乱了顺序还是会标红。

6、直接删除标红的句子

模糊算法会自动关联前后句,这样修改会引起“蝴蝶效应”。

这里君道论文小编和大家说一下避免抄袭的正确方法:

1.正确使用直接引用:1.引用资料,认真整理所引用的资料是避免抄袭的最有效方法之一。Citation部分要遵循你的学校或机构要求的文档格式指南(如APA、MLA、Harvard、Chicago等),通常需要包括作者和出版日期等详细信息。(小编告诉大家个小技巧:整理引用资料不用自己一个字一个字打,直接找到Cite for Me网站(或是Words自带插件),输入文献信息和要求格式,就可以得到完整的Citation啦。2.直接引用,引用一个源文献时,一定选择合适且准确的表达方式。但是整句引用,或是40个单词以上的引语,是大多数高等院校都不提倡的。对我们平常写的essay来说,一篇论文篇幅不会特别长, 如果逐段引用的话,查重率嗖嗖嗖地就上去啦!所以,我们应该合理并有效地解释大部分材料。虽然这个过程需要很多时间,但是付出是值得的!3.引用自己的材料,如果你在研究论文中使用的一些材料是以前自己撰写的,那么对自己文献的引用要和正常引用一样。虽然说“肥水不流外人田”,但是如果不加批注引用以前材料的话,会被认为是自我剽窃。4.二次引用,如果你引用了别人文章中带引号“”的quote,你需要在参考文献部分添加页码信息,网页内容则需要添加段落号。会出现这种情况,一般是因为同学们为减少阅读文献的时间,会去直接参考一些著作的Review。如果没有看过Review里提到的原文,最好不要使用二次引用。因为二次引用更多是是结论性和建设性的内容。如果没看过原著直接引用,很大程度上会造成理解偏颇。而且,饱读诗书的导师很容易就能看出来,你究竟有没有读原著,对内容理解是不是有偏差。如果是初写论文者,也不建议使用二次引用哦。5.参考文献,最后,避免剽窃的最有效的方法之一,就是在研究论文的最后加上一份完整的参考文献。同样,该部分必须符合所要求的文档格式指南,大学和院系的官网上都会列出具体要求。

2.改写:变化措辞法

变化核心词,Rephrase段落结构,这个方法实用,但需要一定的技术。先用自己的话表达出来,理解文章要表达的意思;必要时改变单词的形式/语法形式,适当使用同义词,但不要只变化表达方式,也不要更改特定的术语;确保从你找到的文本中,每一行不逐字复制超过两个单词。如果你同时使用两个以上的单词,就要有一些小技巧:如果是一般的引用,就采用罗嗦法,将原句中省略的主语、谓语等等添加齐全,哪怕多一个字也好;也可以采用横刀法,将一些句子的成分去除,用一些代词替代;还有画蛇添足法,可以在一些缩写的英文边上加注释;总之,将每句话都可以变化一下,哪怕增加一个字或减少一个字,都是可以的。

要强调一下,改写并不是单单替换同义词句,而是要在真正理解文献之后,联系上下文,抓住作者的中心思想。

3.添加你自己的例子和观点

在改写句子后,如果你有来自自己的实践或专业经验,自己的观察,其他文献或出版资料。那你可以加上这些来增强论证!用“To illustrate”这样的短语来举例说明,或是“An example of this can be seen in….”其次是表达你的个人观点:你支持这个观点吗?,你反对这个观点吗?,为什么(连接下文讨论),这个观点有什么不足?或是对上下文进行注释,添加另一个批判性评论。这一点要根据专业和写作类型随机应变哦,不是广泛适用于所有论文的,例如case summary就不需要作者个人的观点和意向。

4.外文文献翻译法

对中国学生来说,会中文在这里变成了优势。找到相关的中文文献,找出自己想说的一段话,用自己的语言翻译成英文,就能应付不少词数了。当然了,外文不仅指中文,还有德文法文俄文,如果你会其他语言的话,翻译过来照样可以。当然,翻译别靠翻译器,要你自己翻译!翻译器翻出来的东西,老师一眼就看得出来,印象会非常糟糕,甚至抹杀你论文其他所有可取之处。

5.将原文中的表格变成图片

有时候别的学者总结了表格,你即便标出reference,检查结果还是判定是抄袭。如果时间充裕,你可以自己找表格里的来源,自己重写。如果时间实在来不及,或者表格里的术语或关键词都是固定用法,很难替换,就可以转换成图片。这样可以降低抄袭率,缺点就是图片不算字数,需要写更多的字数。此方法最适用于本来抄袭率很高,字数也很多的文章,将一些经典reference变成图片可以降低抄袭率。

其实,避免抄袭最有效的方法就是彻底领会原文的意思,然后抛开原文,用自己的语言重写。这样Turnitin怎么也不会查出有抄袭率的问题。这样做基本上抄袭率在3~5%之间。这个方法的难度在于你需要熟读要参考的文章,真正的理解文章内容,并且对学术背景有一定的研究才可以。

最后君道论文小编还想说明一点,Turnitin有分为收录和不收录的检测,大部分高校的检测是即时收录的,提交检测后论文会即时收录到Turnitin的比对库,因此,在确保重复率达到学校要求之前慎用学校的Turnitin进行检测!但是君道论文的Turnitin是不收录的检测,因此,可以帮助同学们在提交之前,有效的检测相似度,方便同学们提前修改。

希望小编的总结能够给同学们在写论文中避开抄袭率的,不枉君道论文小编这么努力的给大家讲解的。如果大家有不懂的欢迎来咨询我们的客服。

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如何找靠谱的论文代写机构?

论文代写机构靠谱

新学期伊始,当同学们刚刚从要忍受孤独、忍受难吃的快餐、忍受不同学习模式的困境中缓解过来,一个绕不过去的坎儿又直直的立在了同学们面前,写论文-全英文的essay,report, presentation, exam等作业要求铺面而来。然而,国内的高中甚至大学,都没有专门针对论文写作的课程,很多学校的资源也有限,即使学生有心想参加一些好的科研项目,学校也爱莫能助。此外,国内外论文在写作方式、reference的使用、格式要求上又很不一样,很多学生就像无头苍蝇一样,吃不消,不知道如何开始。但为了完成学业,再困难,同学们也要硬着头皮上~~

这时,也有一批学生,为了减缓压力,会找人代♥写O(∩_∩)O!,但是大部分留学生对论文代♥写还是很纠结的,其实这个问题主要是看个人,如果自己能写的好话,那么想当然是用不到论文代♥写的。但是如果真的努力过还是不会写,那么不找代♥写,难道等着挂科,拿不到学位证吗,这是没有道理的。毕竟,为了在国外读书,你已经投入了大量的金钱和时间,还要忍受一个人在国外的各种不适,结果什么学位也没获得,那简直是太憋屈了。

当然,不同的代♥写机构服务的差距非常大,代♥写的论文质量参差不齐,更有甚者直接是骗钱的。君道论文的老师就曾今遇到过被别的不靠谱的论文代♥写坑了的学生。小慧(化名)在英国纽卡斯尔大学读大三,想继续在英国读硕士的她,课后参加了好几个实习项目,只是这么一来,论文哪有时间写啊?这时候,一条答疑群里消息解了她的燃眉之急。

哇,听起来好靠谱的样子~~再一联系,对方还保证至少能拿60分以上高分,不然就全额退款。又能实习又不用担心论文,这种好事,当然要毫不犹豫地付钱啊~~然而,当她把代♥写的论文交给了导师之后,她的悲剧开始了:

论文交出去没几天,小慧就收到导师邮件,说她的论文大段内容和网上两篇论文内容一样,需要面谈,让她解释论文抄袭的问题。啊,抄袭?? 不是说保证原创吗?懵圈的小慧赶紧去联系这家代♥写机构,你们这种行为不是在坑客户吗,我要解决办法,要退款!!更坑的还在后面,她的愤怒换来的不是道歉,不是免费修改,更不是退款,而是拉黑: 代♥写机构就把小慧拉黑了……

代♥写机构是溜了,但小慧的事大了。因为论文被判定为抄袭,学校认定小慧学术不诚信,勒令她停课一年,她的硕士计划也泡汤了,不过,没被退学就已经要谢天谢地了。这下,小慧彻底傻掉了,钱花了、论文被毙了、课程被停了、满心委屈还投诉无门,只能哑巴吃黄连了。

这样的例子上网随手一搜,简直数不胜数,所以同学们在需要找代♥写帮助的情况下,一定要找一家靠谱的代♥写机构。

通常,同学们找代♥写,最关心的就是论文能否通过,是否能拿高分和价钱问题,而这两者都涉及到代♥写机构的服务。如今代♥写市场非常混乱,可能同学们不知道怎么去对比这些代♥写机构,从而找到一家值得信赖的。

那么怎么才能找到一家靠谱的代♥写机构呢,同学们可以首先从代♥写机构的网站入手。如果他们有自己的网站,那么就有一定的信任度可言,接下来再看网站的信息,从而判断这个网站的质量,而网站的质量会跟代♥写机构的服务成正比。因为,靠谱的代♥写机构会花费很大的成本去维护自己的网站,所以每天都会更新很多留学生想了解的资讯和知识,这个也使代♥写机构积累了很大的人气和流量。至于网站的信息,同学们一般可以从以下几个方面考虑评估:

1、观察网站内容的丰富程度。一个非常有实力的网站,必然有大量优秀论文的展现以及很全面很专业的网站布局设计,让客户感觉得到这家机构雄厚的实力。

2、观察网站联系方式的数量。如果打开一家论文代♥写机构的官网,如君道留学论文网官网有很多联系途径,比如QQ、微信、微博、知乎以及其他平台,联系方式越多,客户的服务就越能得到保证。

3、观察域名的注册时间。最直接可以知道该机构经营时间的方式就是看官网上的域名,时间越久远就越有保证,毕竟在激烈的竞争中能运营很长时间的机构有一定的信任度。

其次,需要了解网站的团队。非常有信誉的论文网站都能提供诚信、热情、全程论文代♥写服务:代♥写团队强大,写手资源广泛,团队运营高效协调,内部管理相当完善,能够严格把关质量,绝对以客户为中心,做到让客户非常满意,并且能够适当地推广。

另外客服的服务质量也可以反映出代♥写机构的优劣。一般来说代♥写机构的官网都会有客服的聊天窗口,在跟客服咨询的时候,同学们可以从对话中判断客服的专业性,因为专业的代♥写机构的客服对留学生的学业是非常了解的, 所以客户的问题是基本可以解答的。客服的在线时间是客服服务质量的另一方面。非常有信誉的网站不仅要有较多地可以联系到的方式,如果不能及时接线也是不行,在这一方面君道论文网平台却可以以官网,QQ,微信,微博,知乎等方式的交流平台,保证客服一天24小时在线,能够与客户及时沟通,解决客户的难题。

此外,还有两点需要注意:非常有信誉靠谱的代♥写机构都有好几种支付途径供大家选择,其中就包括bank account,paypal担保支付,支付宝,微信等,所以可以保障大家资金的安全。非常有信誉的论文网站均可提供论文代♥写、论文修改和论文发表一站式保密服务,客户可根据自己的需要选择服务的范围。

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伦敦大学学院论文代写-Privacy & Organizational Communication Theory

Privacy & Organizational Communication Theory

本文将探讨员工在现代企业环境中的角色,并将其与员工在更多历史背景下所享有的角色和地位进行比较和对比。本文将探讨英国数据保护和隐私保护的法律框架,并将从理论和实践两方面探讨这一框架如何适用于工作场所。考虑到旨在保护雇员利益的立法的作用,作者将评论立法的效力,并考虑到立法为雇员创造的具体权利和立法为雇主创造的具体责任。本文还将探讨与工作场所监督和就业权利相关问题的更广泛的社会学背景,作者将考虑技术进步和信息时代如何影响现代雇员在隐私方面的地位。

Introduction

This essay will consider and evaluate the proposition “privacy is dead- get over it” by looking at organizational communication theory and practice. The essay will look at the role of the employee in the modern corporate environment, and compare and contrast this with the role and status enjoyed by the employee in more historical settings. The essay will look at the statutory framework for Data Protection in the UK, and privacy and will examine how this applies to the workplace, both in theory and in practice. The role of legislation designed to protect the interests of employees will be considered and the writer will comment on the efficacy of the legislation as well as considering the specific rights that it creates for employees and the specific responsibilities that it creates for employers. The wider sociological context for issues connected to surveillance in the workplace and employment rights will be examined also, and the writer will consider how technological advancement and the Information Age has affected the status of the modern employee in terms of their privacy. The ultimate aim of creating this context will be to inform a holistic evaluation of the proposition “privacy is dead- get over it”.

Privacy and surveillance in the workplace

In the modern workplace there are various tensions that exist between the privacy of employees and the level of surveillance that employers may employ in order to ensure that the organization functions optimally (Sprenger, P. (1999); Treacy, B. (2009); Wilkes, A. (2011)). Social networking sites are becoming more and more popular, and the internet is being used more and more to facilitate communication within organizations: “According to the Office for National Statistics’ 2010 data, 30.1 million adults in the UK (60% of the population) access the internet every day or almost everyday. This is nearly double the 2006 estimate of 16.5 million. Social networking was a popular internet activity in 2010, with 43% of internet users posting messages to social networking sites or chat sites, blogs etc. While social networking activities prove to be most popular amongst 16–24 year olds, 31% of internet users aged 45–54 have used the internet to post messages on social network sites, while 28% uploaded content. Many of the adults that use social networks do so not only for social networking purposes but also for business networking purposes. Of the individuals listed in LinkedIn this year, there are over 52,000 people, predominantly in the US, Canada, India, Italy, UK and the Netherlands (in that order) with ‘privacy’ mentioned in their profile. Within LinkedIn there are also a considerable number of privacy related LinkedIn groups which have substantial memberships. Many of the readers of this article will no doubt be in those groups for social as well as business purposes…(Bond, R. (2010) pp. 1)”, and this intensifies the debate as to how far employees’ privacy can be lawfully infringed by employers.

As organizational communication takes place more and more via email and other forms of electronic communication the problem of privacy is further heightened as more extensive records of personal communication are created and retained (Johnson, D. and Turner, C. (2003) p. 43-47; Jordan, T. (1999) p. 17-19; Kitt, G. (1996) p. 14-18). What to do with data like this poses a complex problem relating to the privacy of the employee and the right of the employer to infringe privacy in order to ensure the integrity of their organization.

The statutory framework

In the UK the privacy of an employee’s data, and an employer’s lawful access to such information is defined through a number of routes (Lunney, M. and Oliphant, K. (2003); Mc Kendrick, E. (2003)). Firstly, there is an important statutory framework that employers must respect. This is created by the Data Protection Act 1998, and also by the ECHR which requires that an individual’s private and family life be respected (Article 8 of the ECHR). These rights are enforceable by an individual in a civil court in the UK, but also by public agencies in the UK like the Office of the Information Commissioner (Sprenger, P. (1999); Treacy, B. (2009); Wilkes, A. (2011)).

The Data Protection Act 1998 has created a number of principles of data protection, which must be respected. These are that information (i) must be fairly and lawfully processed; (ii) information may only be obtained for specified lawful purposes, (ii) may not be processed in any manner incompatible with such purposes; (iii) data must be adequate, relevant and not excessive for the purposes for which it is collected; (iv) information must be accurate and where necessary kept up to date, (v) information must not be kept longer than necessary, (vi) information must be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects, (vii) security measures must be taken against unauthorized and unlawful processing of information against accidental destruction, or unauthorized or unlawful destruction, and (viii) information must not be transferred outside the European Economic Area within the consent of the data subject. In cases where these principles are not adhered to by employers, an employee may institute civil actions for breach of privacy, and or complaints to the ICO who may pursue criminal prosecutions against any party who has breached the Data Protection Principles (Kuschewsky, M. (2009); Hansson, S. and Palm, E. (2005) p. 57). As such the Data Protection Act 1998 creates a range of rights in terms of privacy and security of personal information and these may be enforced directly by an individual or by a public body such as The Information Commissioner on behalf of an individual. Breach of the Data Protection Act 1998 is a criminal offence which is punishable with fines and or up to six months imprisonment. Recent changes to the powers of the Information Commissioner gives them powers to issue fines of up to £500,000 for cases of serious breaches of the Data Protection Act 1998 (Kuschewsky, M. (2009); Hansson, S. and Palm, E. (2005) p. 57).

On the other hand there is also a statutory framework that addresses how far an employer may go in terms of monitoring their employees in the course of employment. The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 and the Telecommunications (Lawful Business Practice) (Interception of Communication) Regulations 2000. These provide that monitoring of employee data can only be authorized for specific, defined purposes such as where the employer has a legitimate overriding interest in the pursuit of monitoring activities (Schirato, T. and Yell, S. (2000) p. 42-45; Sime, S. (2007) p. 12; Smith, M. and Kollock, P. (1998) p. 32-35). Thus it may be argued that there is a balance to be struck between the information that employee’s disclose which may be lawfully evaluated by the employer (deemed for example in communication privacy management theory as “self-disclosed” information (see: Petronio, S. (2002) p. 3)) and information that is subject to inappropriate uses.

Clauses in the employment contract may also define the rights and responsibilities of the employer and the employee in terms of privacy, but it is important to note that employers may not, through the operation of a private contract exclude any of the rights and or responsibilities that are defined in The Data Protection Act 1998, or the ECHR (Blanpain, R. (2007); Elliott, C. and Quinn, F. (1999)). The wider legislative framework may be further defined according to the theory of privacy rule development. Privacy rule development theory argues that cultural, and sociological factors impact the boundaries of privacy rights (Petronio, S. (2002) p. 40) and it is clear that there is a balanced approach to the rights of the employee and the responsibilities of the employer under this framework and this reflects wider liberal sociological and cultural values prevalent in the UK.

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兰卡斯特大学论文代写-International Business Strategies

International business strategy

企业在21世纪的生存和发展在很大程度上取决于企业的跨国扩张能力,以及扩张的成本效益和公司选择的国际商业战略的复杂性与风险。企业的资源和目标,以及对其境外产品的需求,对于决定公司产品或服务的全球化非常重要。尽管三种战略在管理文献中更为常见,即多国内、全球和跨国法,但根据Barlett和Ghoshal(1989年)的说法,企业可采用的第四种战略,那就是全球扩张的方法。本文将从企业可选择的四种方法中,分析两种方法在本地响应能力和业务成本压力方面的不同。其中国际法是企业响应能力最低、成本最高的方法,跨国法是成本最高、本地关注度最高的方法。

The survival and progression of businesses in the 21st century is highly dependent on the ability of firms to expand beyond their national borders, taking into account the cost effectiveness of expansion and the complexity and risks associated with the company’s chosen international business strategy (Peng, Wang, & Jiang, 2008). The resources and objectives of a firm, as well as the demand for their product outside their national borders are important in taking the decision to globalise a company’s products and/or services (Miller, 1992). Although three strategies are more common in the management literature, namely multi domestic, global and transnational approaches, the fourth strategy available to firms, according to Barlett and Ghoshal (1989) is the international approach to global expansion. This essay will analyse the two approaches that differ in local responsiveness and cost pressure for the business, with the international approach as the least responsive and expensive for the company and the transnational approach as the most costly and locally focused from the four options available to companies.

To start with, local responsiveness of multinational corporations is often a matter of mutual expectations of the company expanding into a region and the local customers’ demands and needs (Gomez-Mejia & Palich, 1997). For instance, food and beverage companies from the Western world (i.e. the US or the UK) expanding into Asian countries need to integrate certain products in their range that suit the demands of local consumers (Watson, 2006). As such, the role of the transnational approach is to enable companies from a culturally distinct country to penetrate a new market successfully (London & Hart, 2004). There are both positive and negative effects of the transnational approach. Developing a business model and manufacturing strategies is a costly process for any company and changing this for the purpose of integrating new products specific to a region is an additional financial pressure for multinational companies (Zaheer, 1995). Although the negative impact of local adaptation may deter some firms from adopting this strategy, the success of companies like McDonalds which take this approach proves that the additional costs can increase the chances of global success and the return on investment (ROI) for the company (Luo, 2001). The core advantage of the transnational approach is the potential of multinational firms to compete with local counterparts in a more effective manner through offering local products alongside their already established reputation (Dawar & Frost, 1999). High levels of local responsiveness also ensures that the reputation in the new region contributes to the ethical image and the overall CSR of a multinational company (Husted & Allen, 2006). Large corporations are often accused of unethical conduct due to the cost competitiveness with the local providers, as international firms often perfect their manufacturing techniques in order to reduce all the time and resource waste, therefore allowing them to compete with local firms (Meyer, 2004). An increasing number of countries have launched campaigns which promote local companies over the international competitors claiming that regional businesses understand the needs and desires of their customer base more, unlike the multinational firms (Kapferer, 2002). This underlines the importance of local responsiveness, as the resistance of local customers decreases when a multinational demonstrates a desire to first understand the locals’ behaviour and adjust their strategy accordingly when entering a new region (Prahalad & Doz, 1999).

In spite of the important role and effect of the transnational approach, there are multiple companies which have succeeded despite their disregard of the local customers’ specific needs and desires (Samiee & Roth, 1992). These companies opted for internationalisation as a strategy for global expansion, relying on the recognisability of their brand name, logo, specific products, packaging, etc. A successful company which took this approach in their international expansion is Starbucks, who launched their very specific coffee shops across the world aiming to take over the market share of local coffee shops through offering a very specific experience, rather than focusing exclusively on the beverages offered (Harrison, 2005). Although the local Starbucks coffee shops across the world offer some specific products, such as a variety of green tea products in Asian countries, the core product sold by Starbucks is the experience that customers enjoy alongside their chosen beverage (Gaudio, 2003). Whilst it was difficult at start for Starbucks to maintain a standardised approach to the design of their customer experience, taking over local coffee shop chains and their clientele has proven to be a successful tactic (Loeb, 2013). This international approach therefore reduces the initial cost pressure through taking over a large share of the customers of former cafés in the local region and the premises which were built and used for an identical purpose (Barkema & Vermeulen, 1998). Rebranding the coffee shops in order to maintain a standard image is less expensive than building coffee shops from scratch, in addition to the existing customer base that the American giant is able to take over (Gaviria, 2012). In consequence, the role of the international approach as an expansion tactic is to allow companies to expand quickly, cost effectively and effortlessly (Contractor, Kumar, & Kundu, 2007). The effect of the tactic is a positive one from a financial viewpoint and, more often than not, a negative one from a reputation point of view, as citizens perceive this approach to disregard any specific cultural aspect of the region that multinationals penetrate.

It is, therefore, obvious that each of these two approaches have their advantages and disadvantages for the company aiming to explore a new region, the local competition and the customer base in the country. However, companies must take into account the impact of the global mobility of the workforce and the extent to which social media influences the demands of customers and the reputation of a multinational firm (Okazaki & Taylor, 2013). The role and effect of both international business strategies are influenced by these elements, as consistency in a multinational’s approach is even more important in the light of individuals travelling on a regular basis for business and work purposes and the ability of people all over the world to share information via social media (Jin, Park, & Kim, 2008). In other words, a company must set their priorities from the onset of internationalisation in order to maximise their earning potential and the international reputation through their chosen tactic for global reach (Vrontis, Thrassou, & Lamprianou, 2009). As a result of this, both the role and the effect of the international business strategies are enhanced in the long run, as companies are less able to change their view on the approach to conquering new regions. Well established Western companies must ponder over the decision of investing capital in the transnational approach, as their lack of success of competing against local companies could mean that their financial loss may never be recuperated (Prahalad & Doz, 1999). On the other hand, without an adaptation to the locals’ needs and desires an international company’s ability to succeed may be compromised, but the financial impact of this failure will not be as great as that supported by companies who invest capital in adaptation (Solberg, 2002).

Companies must take into account all of the influencing factors, particularly those that stem from cultural elements of the destination country, when opting for an international business strategy (Drogendijk & Slangen, 2006). The gains of the company must be maximised through international expansion and the best solution is often dependent on the capital that the multinational is willing to invest in the their global strategy, as well as the market positioning of local competitors and the resistance of local consumers to new and international products or services. The emergence of social media also offers multinational companies an advantage, as the contact between individuals from distinct areas makes it possible for demand in one country for a particular brand to grow through online advertising of particular products (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). The international tactic is therefore made easy by the ability to promote a company through social media and export products, without any concern for local adaptation, through online shopping. On the other hand, the success of companies with brick and mortar shops in new region is significantly higher than that of companies that rely exclusively on online retail (Steinfield, Adelaar, & Liu, 2005). In addition to this, not all regions have the same level of trust towards online shopping, as the security concerns in some regions are significantly higher, particularly when no efforts of local adaptation are made by the international firm (Bart, Shankar, Sultan, & Urban, 2005).

In conclusion, the role and effect of international business strategies are crucial in the success of expanding a business beyond its national borders, but the potential of these can only be maximised when taking into account other elements that contribute to the internationalisation, such as local culture, the demands, needs and wants of customer base targeted, etc. The impact of the chosen strategy must be thoroughly analysed by a firm, as international strategies require consistency over time in the approach taken. In consequence, the advantages and disadvantages presented in this essay must be weighed against the multinational’s company mission and their future plans in order to opt for one of the two extremes, transnational or internationalisation approach, or the two other options in between, global or multinational approach.

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帝国理工学院论文代写-Balanced Scorecard

帝国理工学院论文代写

本文的目的是分析“平衡计分卡”,并回顾其作为绩效管理工具的有效性。它将简要回顾“平衡计分卡”的简短历史,然后从各个方面分析管理工具,以及它们之间的关系。

Introduction

The intention of this essay is to analyse the ‘Balanced Scorecard’ and to review its effectiveness as a performance management tool. It will review briefly the short history of the ‘Balanced Scorecard’ and then analyse each of the different aspects of the management tool and describe how they link together.

History of the Balanced Scorecard

The notion of the ‘Balanced Scorecard’ first appeared in the Harvard Business Review in 1992 in an article titled “The Balanced Scorecard – Measures that Drive Performance,”authored by Robert Kaplan and David Norton (Kaplan and Norton 1992). They had conducted a year-long study with “12 companies at the leading edge of performance measurement, [and] devised a ‘balanced scorecard’”as a result of their research (Kaplan and Norton, 1992, p.71).

A ‘Balanced Scorecard’ is a “strategic planning and management system that is used to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organisation, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organisation performance against strategic goals”(Balanced Scorecard Institute, Unknown). It was brought out of the necessity to include non-financial indicators to measure performance, where in the past businesses and managers focused primarily on financially-based indicators to measure performance. These financially-based performance measurement systems “worked well for the industrial era, but they are out of step with the skills and competencies companies are trying to master today”(Kaplan and Norton, 1992, p.71).

After spending a year with various companies, Norton and Kaplan realised that “Managers want a balanced presentation of both financial and operational measures”(Kaplan and Norton, 1992, p.71). The recognition of the importance of operational measures was a milestone in performance measurement systems, as financially-based measurements help indicate the final outcomes of actions and processes already set in place, whilst operational measures help aid the driving of future financial performance.

Since its inception in 1992 the ‘Balanced Scorecard’ is now “adopted by thousands of private, public, and non-profit enterprises around the world”(Kaplan, 2010, p. 2). Which provides testament to its importance and effectiveness as a performance management system, it is likely that businesses that have implemented the systems have seen profound impacts on their profit margins and the happiness and innovativeness’ of their workforce.

The Four Perspectives

The scorecard itself is made up of four different perspectives; Financial, Customer, Internal Business Processes, and Learning & Growth. By looking at these different perspectives the balanced scorecard “provide[s] answers to four basic questions; How do customers see us? What must we excel at? Can we continue to improve and create value? How do we look to shareholders?”(Kaplan and Norton, 1992, p.72) By providing senior managers with information from four important perspectives, another benefit of implementing a scorecard is that it minimises information over-load by “add[ing] value by providing both relevant and balanced information in a concise way for managers”(Mooraj, Oyon and Hostettler, 1999, p.489).

To understand more completely how the interaction of the phases helps an organisation create additional financial value whilst aiding in the learning and growth, internal business processes and customer satisfaction perspectives see the appendix for fig.1, and fig.2. The four different perspectives and the way they interconnect are an important issue, as such it is also important to analyse each of them on an individual basis; first it must be recognised that each of the perspectives is made up of Objectives, Measurements, Targets and finally Programmes.

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圣安德鲁斯大学论文代写 – Overvaluation of the Stock Market

圣安德鲁斯大学论文代写

股票市场是投资者最喜欢的投资平台之一,因为它有着高投资回报。造成这种高回报的原因有很多,其中之一可能是股票市场上金融商品的估值。一些金融分析师认为,股票市场被高估了。另一个学派的观点是股市的估价是合理的;而一些人则认为他们被低估了。由于这些观点的差异,很难确定股票市场被高估的程度。

Introduction

Stock markets are considered to be among the most preferred investment platforms by investors, as they generate a high return on investment (Fong, 2014). There are many underlying reasons for this high return, one of which may be the valuation of the financial commodities traded in the stock market (Chang, 2005). Some financial analysts believe that the stock markets are extremely overvalued (Phoenix, 2014), while there are others who consider them as being slightly overvalued (Rosenberg, 2010). Another school of thought has a viewpoint that they are fairly valued (Wolf, 2008); while, some hold the opinion that they are undervalued (Pan, 2009). Due to these differences in viewpoints, it becomes difficult to gauge the extent to which stock markets are overvalued. The reasons for these differences in opinions are the different geographical locations (Tan, Gan and Li, 2010) and the different assumptions made in comparisons (Cheng and Li, 2015). The difference in the methods used for valuation also turns out to be one of the reasons, as every method has its merits and demerits (Khan, 2002). Stock market overvaluation may have severe negative effects including a market crash or increasing organisation’s agency costs, which need to be considered by managers in organization-wide strategic management (Jensen, 2005).

Methods used for Stock Valuation

Various methods are used for stock valuation; some of the common ones include Price to Earnings ratio (Stowe et al., 2008), Knowledge Capital Earnings (Ujwary-Gil, 2014) and Dividend Discount Model (Adiya, 2010). The price to earnings ratio is the most common method used to evaluate stock markets, whereby the company’s current stock price is compared with the predicted earnings it will yield in future (Stowe et al., 2008). Knowledge Capital Earnings – KCE is another method through which a company’s intellectual capital can be gauged and interpretation of the extent to which it is overvalued can be given (Ujwary-Gil, 2014). The KCE method, however, is specifically subjective if the analyst is interested in estimating the potential future earnings of an organization (Ujwary-Gil, 2014).

The Dividend Discount Model is based on the assumption that the price of a stock at equilibrium will be equal to the sum of all its upcoming dividend yields discounted back to its current value (Ivanovski, Ivanovska and Narasanov, 2015). One of the shortcomings of this model is with the company’s growth estimation, in which the averaged historical rates do not provide an accurate picture, as they ignore the ongoing economic conditions and the changes that take place in the company (Ivanovski, Ivanovska and Narasanov, 2015). Another issue identified by Mishkin, Matthews and Giuliodori (2013) is related to the accuracy of dividends forecasted based on the company’s past performance and the predicted future trends of the market; critics cast doubts on the accuracy of these figures, as they are purely based on estimation of analysts and may not be always correct.

Stock Markets are Extremely Overvalued

Hussman (2014), who is well-known for his accurate insights about the financial markets, comments in one of his speeches that due to their Zero Interest Rate and Quantitative Easing policies, the central banks have driven the stock prices up to twice as high as they are supposed to be. This imparts the stock markets to be overvalued by 100%. While different authors argue that every evaluation metric has its merits and demerits, which makes it difficult to conclude whether stock markets are overvalued when calculated via a specific metric, a Phoenix (2014) report provides evidence of the fact that stock markets are overvalued by almost every metric used for valuation. According to Autore, Boulton and Alves (2015), short interest rates are also a determinant of stock valuation; the lower the short interest rate of the initial stock, the more overvalued the stock will be.

An example could be that of the U.S. stock market which is analysed to be overvalued by 55% (Lombardi, 2014), while it is estimated to be overvalued by 80% according to another research (Heyes, 2015). Lombardi (2014) identifies it to be overvalued to such an extent due to the increasing presence of bullish stock advisors as compared to bearish advisors, which results in the investors being complacent without being anxious about a huge market sell-off. By evaluating the market through various methods, Tenebrarum (2015) established an opinion that the U.S. stock market is valued at its highest peak to date. Additionally, Lombardi (2014) recognises these indicators to be similar to those before the stock market crash in 2007. Hence it may lead us to a prediction that history might repeat itself, as specialists have already expected the forthcoming crash (Heyes, 2015).

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牛津大学论文代写-Sensational Sensors

牛津大学论文代写

为了观察空间的大小是否影响电感应电荷的能力,我们专门对距离进行了实验。这个实验的问题是通过自制一个电场探测器来测试三个诱发电流的物体,比如气球、梳子和塑料杯。每个物体都被放置在探测器前面3英寸的起始距离处,然后逐渐向后移动,直到LED灯熄灭。

Abstract

The power of electricity was tested to discover the different ways electricity can be impacted upon. Distance was specifically experimented upon to see if the amount of space effected electricity’s ability to sense electrical charges. The problem of the experiment was tested by creating a homemade electrical field detector to put to test against three electricity inducing objects such as a balloon, a comb, and a plastic cup. The objects were each placed at a starting distance of 3 inches in front of the detector and gradually moved back until the LED light went out.  At the end of the experiment what was surprisingly discovered was that the detector was not able to pick up on any charge presented from any of the objects resulting in a failure to be able to answer the problem of the experiment.

Background Research

The experiment in question explains the basic workings and capabilities of a simple electric field detector. Every circuit, transistor, wire, and resistor is arranged meticulously to create a large array of detectors to fit a specific purpose. The purpose is to expand knowledge and understanding of the natural forces, like electricity, that occur in nature. The research gathered from utilizing the electrical field detector reveals new scientific terminology and procedures. The research opens a new point of view into the true capabilities of electricity.

The experiment frequently refers to electric fields making a point to the term being a crucial part of the topic of the experiment. According to Thought Co. an electric field is, “regions of space around electrically charged particles or objects in which other electrically charged particles or objects would feel force” (Thought Co.). Electrical fields are produced when a positive charge shifts into a negative, and the direction the field moves towards is decided by which charge is active at the moment. When the electric field is repelled positive charges are in play. When a negative charge is in play the field will move towards the negative charge.

The main parts used to execute a detector’s ability to sense electric fields are semiconductors and circuit diagrams. Semiconductors are a special material fitted with the ability to partly import current. Semiconductor’s conductivity levels are moderate hence having the prefix semi-, meaning half or partly, added to the word semiconductor. There are two specific types of semiconductor used when constructing an electric field detector. P-type semiconductors are used to develop free electrons as minority charge carriers. Holes are the majority charge carriers. The exact opposite occurs within n-type semiconductors. N-type semiconductors use minority charge as free electrons and holes are the majority charge.

Charge carriers are the particles, such as free electrons and holes, that carry the electric current and charge from one place to another. A large amount of charge carriers are called majority charge carriers. Majority charge carriers handle most of the transportation of electrical charge or current. Minority charge carriers have a small charge. The very small amounts of electrical charge or current are left up to the minority charge carriers. Though on most occasions the majority charge carriers take care of the very small amounts as well.

A circuit diagram acts as the blueprints for the electrical circuitry used in the construction of the detector. The diagrams are generally represented using specific symbols to show the different circuits needed for each section. There are two types of circuit diagrams used called pictorial and schematic. Pictorial style uses basic symbols and shapes to easily represent circuit diagrams to less experienced viewers. The schematic style uses standard industry symbols to give a more technical presentation of the circuit graph to more experienced personnel.

The detector’s ability to sense and detect the nearly invisible forces of electricity is fascinating. There are factors to look for when studying the power of electricity. Though the factors are used to discover ways to harness electricity’s raw power. The reason for seeking out ways to use the data is to advance growth in society. The advancement of society could lead to further extraordinary discoveries in the world of science.

Biblical Application

In the Bible there are stories of God’s work on Earth and human life. One of His most celebrated works is the creation of the Earth. God created the terrain, flora, vegetation, and the changing seasons. In the experiment the power of electricity is tested to see how electricity is impacted. Electricity is a force of nature, as well as, a gift from God that contributes to many of today’s modern-day inventions. God’s gift of life can be seen in Nehemiah 9:6 which states, “You are the Lord, you alone. You have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them: and the host of heaven worships you.”