英文论文商业计划书(business plan)怎么写?

所有的商业活动,最初都只是一些想法与计划,很多创业的朋友都需要一份完美的商业计划书,来向投资者介绍自己的生意,或者寻找志同道合的创业伙伴。一份好的商业计划书,在事业的初期对一个创业团队是十分重要的,因为一个好的商业计划书不仅可以介绍项目本身所具有的技术条件和市场前景,而且对项目的背景、公司的状况、产品的战略定位,领导者的管理思路及财务情况都能进行清晰的阐述并展示在投资者面前,使投资者能够对项目形成整体把握,认为创业者已为项目的实施做了缜密的准备,从而表明项目的运作已经具备了确凿可信的条件,投资者还会据此认为创业者具有良好的敬业精神。对于学习商业管理或者市场营销专业的留学生来说,总会遇到business planning这门课程。学校开设这门课程的意义在于帮助同学们通过学习business planning的相关知识,掌握business planning制定的一些技巧,并熟练运用到以后的工作实践中。那么怎样才能写好商业计划书呢?今天就让我们来学习下商业计划书类论文最重要的一些要点吧。

首先,同学们要了解什么是计划书:商业计划书是总结一个企业或企业家如何通过必要和足够的努力和活动使创业成功。商业计划书是企业就公司管理模式问题向投资人进行的书面解释。商业计划的主要是为企业和政府而制定。(A business plan is a summary of how a business or entrepreneur intends to organize an entrepreneurial endeavor and implement activities necessary and sufficient for the venture to succeed. It is a written explanation of the company’s business model for the venture in question. Business plans are developed for ventures in both business and government)

商业计划是用于内部管理和规划,也是用来说服银行或投资于风险投资家等局外为创业注入资金。(Business plans are used internally for management and planning and are also used to convince outsiders such as banks or venture capitalists to invest money into a venture.)

商业计划以通常很快过时而闻名。商界内的一个共同的信念是,实际的计划可能没有什么价值,更重要的是计划的过程,在这个过程中,经营者能对业务和更多的选择有了更深入的了解。(Business plans are noted for often quickly becoming out of date. One common belief within business circles is that the actual plan may have little value, but what is more important is the process of planning, through which the manager gains a greater understanding of the business and of the options available.)

商业计划是为客户准备的,因为他们需要知道该产品是否符合市场目标而不是该产品的实用性,同时也是为政府准备,因为政府需要了解产品的法律,经济和补贴问题是否符合要求等诸如此类的问题。(Business plan is prepared for customers for they need to know whether the product serves the purpose or not and the utility of the product, for government because it is necessary to know for government whether the legal economical and subsidy concerns are met or the like.)

那么一篇商业计划书通常需要包含哪些内容呢?通常情况下,一篇优秀的商业计划书(Business Planning)需要包含以下几个部分

Executive Summary

Background/Industry Research

Competitor Analysis

Customer Profile

Product Range

Personnel

Operations Analysis

Legal and/or Technical

Sales and Marketing

Financial projections

References

Appendix

当然,这不是每个Business Planning都必须遵守的内容结构,同学们需要根据各自Module上的写作要求具体决定。比如说,斯旺西大学MN-M552business planning这门课,我们就根据他的具体要求,列出如下结构:

1.0 Background and industry research (背景与行业分析)

1.1 Background

1.2 Industry research

1.3 Summarised opinion

2.0 Competitor analysis (竞争对手分析)

3.0 Customer profile (顾客介绍)

3.1 Segmentation

3.2 Targeting

4.0 Product range (产品范围)

4.1 Products

4.2 Value addition

4.3 Market gap

5.0 Personnel (人事部门)

6.0 Operations analysis (运营分析)

7.0 Legal/technical (法律与技术)

7.1 Legal

7.2 Technical

8.0 Sales and marketing (销售与市场推广)

9.0 Financials (财务)

9.1 Sales and cost forecast

9.2 Cash flow analysis

9.3 Profit and loss statement

9.4 Key ratios

References

Appendix 1 Interview questions

综上例子所述,同学们可以发现,一篇好的business planning必须包含competitors analysis。

在商业计划书中一定要写清楚这个商业项目在市场上面临的竞争对手的情况,自己与竞争对手的本质区别在哪里?自己比竞争对手的优势在哪里?但不能诽谤贬低竞争对手,这在论文的写作中是非常不可取的行为。同学们可以通过与竞争对手的对比,了解自己的优势与劣势,找到商业项目在激烈竞争市场中的突破点。

  • 商业计划书中一定要明确自己的听众,也就是需要针对的顾客:

最好的商业计划书最好分为几个版本,一份给银行家与风险投资看,一份给个体投资看,一份给那些潜在合作企业看。当然,同学们在论文的写作中不需要如此复杂,只需要明确指出products需要针对的目标客户就行。这里最好从两个方面去写:一方面是segmentation,一方面是Targeting。Segmantation分为Demographic segmentation和 geographic segmentation。

For Demographic segmentation, 研究者Wedel and Kamakura (2012) 在自己的研究中指出,这个细分可以用来target specific customers being targeted for specific benefits. Whilst it thus can be used to segment a market on the basis of age, gender, income, education, family size, employment and religion, age demographic segmentation is the most appropriate to the business idea of E-Taxi Elderly. 而对于geographic segmentation, 研究学者Goyat (2011) 指出这个细分是基于顾客的location, climate, populating density, terrain and languages spoken. 至于Targeting,同学们需要在文中指出the potential target market for the product/company/industry 有何特点,为什么确定此群体customer为target。

随后,同学们还要确定product的range。Desmet and Hekkert (2007)在他们的研究中有说明,product range可以帮助项目计划理解一个特别的顾客对于产品不同层次的需求。通常情况下,会有三个产品层次:core benefit, actual product and augmented product. 对于Core benefit, 他是顾客最基本的需求fundamental need that a customer wants satisfied upon purchasing a product. 对于Actual product,它是顾客对the features and design of a product的需求。至于Augmented product,它代表着the non-physical attributes of a product.这个是迎合特殊顾客需求最重要的手段。当然同学们在具体的写作过程中不仅要给出理论的解释,还要明确产品在这三个层次所要实现的目标,并给出恰当的原因来解释为什么要这么做这个二产品。

同学们还要考虑附加价值。如果你期望在6个月后变成行业的领先者,你就最好有详实的证据能证明你的观点。如果你声称自己的产品在市场中一定盈利,那产品的附加价值最好能支撑这个说法,总之切记不要满嘴跑火车。

这里同学们要分析自己商业计划所涉及的产品的附加价值所在。并给出原因说明。例如,我们分析英国数码的士行业的附加价值,我们就可以这么写:Currently and as captured by International Longevity Centre (2017), 1.45 million UK citizens aged 65 and above experience challenges in traveling to hospital. With the dominant Aged Care Transport system prioritising emergency cases over routine check-ups, elderly individuals unable to drive to healthcare facilities, unable to summon help from family members or having unique conditions that limit effective use of public transport or Uber, there exists a market gap. On the app side, leveraging on improving technology and customisation of ride hailing apps, having a dedicated feature that is tailored for elderly people is important. For instance, it can have an interface of a single click that beams the location of the elderly person in the event they are incapacitated, profile that captures important health information such as existing conditions that give an idea of how serious a particular request is. The sum total of this information can be used to suggest an appropriate ride design and prior communication to a healthcare facility informing them of an incoming emergency. A number of questions were posed to the interviews to help complete the strategy canvas. For instance, in response to the question, in your view, what are the most important factors in the digital taxi industry? The interviewee findings indicated that reliability and convenience were the most important, followed by responsiveness and speed. Another question posed was that of, in your view, which is the main source of sustainable competitive advantage in the digital taxi industry? The interviewee findings indicated that the main source of sustainable competitive advantage was comfort and car intelligence systems, followed by speed, customer care services and GPS systems.

除此之外更为重要的一点便是Market gap,这个是指a market opportunity exists based on the view that the current product option available to the service/industry(这里是你作业里要求的服务或者产品所属行业)In support, two interview questions can be and resulted in the same finding. Firstly, it was posed, what do you feel are the challenges of the current industry options? Secondly, it was posed what challenges does the company face in providing an effective product(选定的) for target customer?

一个好的计划,需要适合的人去执行实施,因此,在写商业计划时,人事Personnel)也是需要考虑的问题。根据公司的大小,业务的范围,我们可以决定计划实施时,人员分配的多少。比如说,如果是一个小公司,人事需要就是非常有限的。例如,it only needs three categories of roles filled for a small company for E-Taxi Elderly business. In the first role, the overall manager that will be in charge of the E-Taxi Elderly business is required. The available position is for a single manager. In the second role, customer care personnel that will handle rider affairs is required. The available positions will be for five representatives. In the third role, the strategy manager that is responsible for analysing feedback and positioning E-Taxi Elderly business to be more customer centric is required.

人事配齐之后,便会涉及计划的运营,所以同学们在这里要进行运营分析。仍以数字化的士行业为例。这里不在赘述,给同学们展示一个图,帮助同学们更加直观的了解如何进行operational analysis.

Figure: Process map showing operations flow chart at E-Taxi Elderly.

法律和技术支持也是商业计划运营之前需要考虑的事情。只有法律和技术的保障,商业的运营计划才能在合法的范围内顺顺利利的进行下去。这里同学们只需说明企业所在国家或城市有哪些法律和技术对于计划的运营时支持的。

产品转化为价值,离不开产品的销售与市场推广。好的营销和推广会达到事半功倍的效果。这里,同学们需要结合产品自身的特点,以及上文的分析,给出最优的营销和推广计划,并给出原因。我们仍旧以针对老年人的数字化的士为例:For instance, the company will manage the spread of information to its customers whilst also regulating the spread of marketing information in order to maximise the appeal of the business idea. This can help communicate to the customer how the new innovative idea can create extra value over existing platforms. Moreover, further primary research revealed that E-Taxi Elderly should also rely on marketing practices to not only highlight the promotions run by the brand but also show how the service adds comparative value in relation to rival services. For instance, within he first three months of operations, a discount can be offered to older persons using the service as a way of bringing them into the service. after the three-month period, the price can normalize to competitive levels because the customers will be engaged to the quality and experience of the brand.

最后,商业计划书中的金额估计,最好保持一定的谨慎和收敛,哪怕十足的把握,也要避免预估过度,从而失去可信度。

在财务部分(Financials),要明确财务计划的币种,限定计划的时间,这里要对拥有的时间和资源保持客观现实,不可过于乐观或夸大。 通常情况下,在财务部分,商业计划要考虑以下四个方面:Sales and cost forecast;Cash flow analysis;Profit and loss statement;Key ratios。

以上便是君道论文小编,对商业计划书如何写的一点解释说明。这里还有一点需要强调那就是逻辑性:

同学们可以想想自己是银行家,并以银行家的思维方式思考问题,并攥写计划书,会更能打动投资者,保证商业计划的顺利实施。

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